Beyond Freedom and Dignity

Author: Burrhus Frederic Skinner

Publisher: Hackett Publishing

ISBN: 9781603844161

Category: Behaviorism (Psychology)

Page: 240

View: 8694

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In this profound and profoundly controversial work, a landmark of 20th-century thought originally published in 1971, B. F. Skinner makes his definitive statement about humankind and society. Insisting that the problems of the world today can be solved only by dealing much more effectively with human behavior, Skinner argues that our traditional concepts of freedom and dignity must be sharply revised. They have played an important historical role in our struggle against many kinds of tyranny, he acknowledges, but they are now responsible for the futile defense of a presumed free and autonomous individual; they are perpetuating our use of punishment and blocking the development of more effective cultural practices. Basing his arguments on the massive results of the experimental analysis of behavior he pioneered, Skinner rejects traditional explanations of behavior in terms of states of mind, feelings, and other mental attributes in favor of explanations to be sought in the interaction between genetic endowment and personal history. He argues that instead of promoting freedom and dignity as personal attributes, we should direct our attention to the physical and social environments in which people live. It is the environment rather than humankind itself that must be changed if the traditional goals of the struggle for freedom and dignity are to be reached. Beyond Freedom and Dignity urges us to reexamine the ideals we have taken for granted and to consider the possibility of a radically behaviorist approach to human problems--one that has appeared to some incompatible with those ideals, but which envisions the building of a world in which humankind can attain its greatest possible achievements.

Beyond Freedom and Dignity

Author: B. F. Skinner

Publisher: Hackett Publishing

ISBN: 1603840818

Category: Psychology

Page: 240

View: 5519

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In this profound and profoundly controversial work, a landmark of 20th-century thought originally published in 1971, B. F. Skinner makes his definitive statement about humankind and society. Insisting that the problems of the world today can be solved only by dealing much more effectively with human behavior, Skinner argues that our traditional concepts of freedom and dignity must be sharply revised. They have played an important historical role in our struggle against many kinds of tyranny, he acknowledges, but they are now responsible for the futile defense of a presumed free and autonomous individual; they are perpetuating our use of punishment and blocking the development of more effective cultural practices. Basing his arguments on the massive results of the experimental analysis of behavior he pioneered, Skinner rejects traditional explanations of behavior in terms of states of mind, feelings, and other mental attributes in favor of explanations to be sought in the interaction between genetic endowment and personal history. He argues that instead of promoting freedom and dignity as personal attributes, we should direct our attention to the physical and social environments in which people live. It is the environment rather than humankind itself that must be changed if the traditional goals of the struggle for freedom and dignity are to be reached. Beyond Freedom and Dignity urges us to reexamine the ideals we have taken for granted and to consider the possibility of a radically behaviorist approach to human problems--one that has appeared to some incompatible with those ideals, but which envisions the building of a world in which humankind can attain its greatest possible achievements.

Jenseits von Freiheit und Würde

Author: B. F. Skinner

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3688117751

Category: Psychology

Page: 222

View: 3525

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In seinem höchst beunruhigenden und provokativen Buch hat B. F. Skinner aus Methoden und Resultaten seiner jahrzehntelangen Forschungsarbeit die Summe gezogen und darauf eine Analyse von Zustand und Zukunft der Gesellschaft und des einzelnen Menschen aufgebaut. Die Krise, in der sich die Weltzivilisation befindet, kann nur überwunden werden, wenn das Verhalten des Menschen von Grund auf neu motiviert wird. Die einzige Überlebenschance sieht Skinner in einer radikalen Revision der geheiligten Ideale von Freiheit und Würde. Diese machtvoll wirksamen Wertvorstellungen haben in der Geschichte stets eine wesentliche Rolle gespielt beim Kampf des Menschen gegen Tyrannei, Despotie und andere Formen autoritärer Herrschaft. Obwohl Skinner ihre wichtige historische Funktion durchaus sieht, gibt er den nahezu religiös verehrten Dogmen von Freiheit und Würde die Hauptschuld an dem gefährlichen Götzenkult, in welchem mittlerweile der Idee vom autonomen Menschen gehuldigt wird. Freiheit und Würde sind Tabus, ihre kritiklose Verinnerlichung hat schwerwiegende Folgen, vor allem weil sie uns an der hergebrachten Bestrafungsethik festhalten lassen und so die Entwicklung einer effektiveren kulturellen Praxis vereiteln.

Bridging Philosophy and Psychology Using the Example of Behaviourism and B.F. Skinner's 'Beyond Freedom and Dignity'

Author: Christian Kuhn

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3638303896

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 24

View: 6209

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Seminar paper from the year 2004 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Other, grade: 1 (A), Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Institute for Foreign Language Philology), course: The Beautiful and the Sublime, language: English, abstract: It seems impossible to give a precise definition of the term philosophy and the teachings that are connected with it. Generally, philosophers’ concerns are questions for the reason and the origin of all being. In a way, these questions unite all of today’s arts subjects. As an effect, though, the boundaries between arts often become blurred, all the more since psychology from the early ancient world until the 19th century has merely been regarded as a philosophical field. With the emancipation of psychology as a scientific discipline on its own, teachings were partly in opposition to the traditional way of thinking, if being based on empirical evidence rather than theoretical considerations. Thus, fundamentals of human psyche happen to become a somewhat delicate matter. With this paper I have touched philosophical and psychological problems using the example of B. F. Skinner’s “Beyond Freedom and Dignity”, trying to show the relationship and the margins of both fields. The author – Burrhus Frederick Skinner (1904-1990) – is regarded one of the most radical ‘scientists’ among all psychologists. Skinner counts for a distinguished representative of a psychological theory that strongly tries to separate psychological findings from anything experimentally unobservable – (American) behaviourism. Nevertheless, Skinner’s book Beyond Freedom and Dignity of 1971 largely leaves out any details of experimental analysis and therefore approaches the question of ‘What is man?’ in a rather philosophical manner. The book represents a philosophical view on man from a behaviouristic perspective, providing a technology of behaviour to solve the problems of mankind. An approach that seems absurd but that mirrors the distinguished image of man of one of the most influential psychologists of the 20th century. In fact, psychological authors rarely refer to Skinner's Beyond Freedom and Dignity because it does not directly relate to his psychological experiments. However, this paper principally serves to outline a psychologist’s attitude concerning the study of human behaviour in a philosophical context. That is, bridging philosophy and psychology using the example of behaviourism, moreover sketching the parallels between early empiricists and early behaviourists, providing a basic understanding for conceptual scientific ways of thinking. This also offers an unadulterated understanding of Skinner’s views, showing that behaviourism is prone to be discussed philosophically.

Die Gesellschaft der Gleichen

Author: Pierre Rosanvallon

Publisher: Hamburger Edition HIS

ISBN: 3868545794

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 7205

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In Demokratien der westlichen Gesellschaften lassen sich zunehmende soziale Unterschiede nicht mehr leugnen. Immer offensichtlicher werdende Einkommensunterschiede setzen das soziale Band bis zum Zerreißen unter Spannung. Eine Gefahr für die Demokratie? Pierre Rosanvallon entfaltet ein sowohl sozial- wie begriffsgeschichtliches Panorama, das die Geschichte der Gleichheitsvorstellungen vom späten 18. Jahrhundert bis in die Gegenwart darstellt, und verknüpft diese Ideengeschichte mit einer kritischen Analyse der aktuellen politischen Situation.

Science And Human Behavior

Author: B.F Skinner

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1476716153

Category: Psychology

Page: 464

View: 9761

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The psychology classic—a detailed study of scientific theories of human nature and the possible ways in which human behavior can be predicted and controlled—from one of the most influential behaviorists of the twentieth century and the author of Walden Two. “This is an important book, exceptionally well written, and logically consistent with the basic premise of the unitary nature of science. Many students of society and culture would take violent issue with most of the things that Skinner has to say, but even those who disagree most will find this a stimulating book.” —Samuel M. Strong, The American Journal of Sociology “This is a remarkable book—remarkable in that it presents a strong, consistent, and all but exhaustive case for a natural science of human behavior…It ought to be…valuable for those whose preferences lie with, as well as those whose preferences stand against, a behavioristic approach to human activity.” —Harry Prosch, Ethics

Parents as Partners in Education, Families and Schools Working Together

Author: CTI Reviews

Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews

ISBN: 1467286818

Category: Education

Page: 65

View: 1429

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Facts101 is your complete guide to Parents as Partners in Education, Families and Schools Working Together. In this book, you will learn topics such as Working with Culturally Diverse Groups, Historical Overview of Family, Effective Home-School-Community Relationships, and Communication and Parent Programs plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.

Building Family, School, and Community Partnerships

Sociology, Sociology

Author: CTI Reviews

Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews

ISBN: 1467238678

Category: Education

Page: 55

View: 5377

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Facts101 is your complete guide to Building Family, School, and Community Partnerships. In this book, you will learn topics such as Parent and Child Advocacy, Cross-Cultural Issues Involving Families and the Community, Creating Community and School Linkages for Parents, and Children of Divorced and Blended Families plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.

Science of Learning and Art of Teaching

Author: CTI Reviews

Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews

ISBN: 1467275743

Category: Education

Page: 34

View: 6757

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Facts101 is your complete guide to Science of Learning and Art of Teaching. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.


... trotzdem Ja zum Leben sagen

Ein Psychologe erlebt das Konzentrationslager

Author: Viktor E. Frankl

Publisher: Kösel-Verlag

ISBN: 3641059038

Category: Psychology

Page: 192

View: 2999

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Mehrere Jahre musste der österreichische Psychologe Viktor E. Frankl in deutschen Konzentrationslagern verbringen. Doch trotz all des Leids, das er dort sah und erlebte, kam er zu dem Schluss, dass es selbst an Orten der größten Unmenschlichkeit möglich ist, einen Sinn im Leben zu sehen. Seine Erinnerungen, die er in diesem Buch festhielt und die über Jahrzehnte Millionen von Menschen bewegten, sollen weder Mitleid erregen noch Anklage erheben. Sie sollen Kraft zum Leben geben.

Radical Behaviorism

Willard Day on Psychology and Philosophy

Author: Sam Leigland

Publisher: New Harbinger Publications

ISBN: 1608825922

Category: Psychology

Page: 208

View: 5138

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From the mid-1960s until his death in 1989, Willard Day wrote and spoke on two central themes: the distinctive characteristics of Skinner's scientific philosophy, and the implications of Skinner's work for the development of scientific methods relevant to verbal behavior. Only some of this work made its way to publication. Edited by Sam Leigland, this book brings together in one place the most important papers, published and unpublished, of the leader in behavioral philosophy.

Teaching Mathematics for the 21st Century, Methods and Activities for Grades 6-12

Author: CTI Reviews

Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews

ISBN: 1467273570

Category: Education

Page: 47

View: 8014

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Facts101 is your complete guide to Teaching Mathematics for the 21st Century, Methods and Activities for Grades 6-12. In this book, you will learn topics such as Concrete to Abstract With Tools, Manipulatives, Computer Programs, Calculators, Standards-Based Curricula With Sample Lessons, Geometry and Algebra Redefined?, and Planning Instruction plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.

Zwischen mir und der Welt

Author: Ta-Nehisi Coates

Publisher: Hanser Berlin

ISBN: 3446251952

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 9941

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Wenn in den USA schwarze Teenager von Polizisten ermordet werden, ist das nur ein Problem von individueller Verfehlung? Nein, denn rassistische Gewalt ist fest eingewebt in die amerikanische Identität – sie ist das, worauf das Land gebaut ist. Afroamerikaner besorgten als Sklaven seinen Reichtum und sterben als freie Bürger auf seinen Straßen. In seinem schmerzhaften, leidenschaftlichen Manifest verdichtet Ta-Nehisi Coates amerikanische und persönliche Geschichte zu einem Appell an sein Land, sich endlich seiner Vergangenheit zu stellen. Sein Buch wurde in den USA zum Nr.-1-Bestseller und ist schon jetzt ein Klassiker, auf den sich zukünftig alle Debatten um Rassismus beziehen werden.

Reflections on behaviorism and society

Author: Burrhus F. Skinner

Publisher: Prentice Hall

ISBN: N.A

Category: Psychology

Page: 209

View: 8012

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B. F. Skinner presents his views on behavior modification and the role of behaviorism in society, education, and future attainment of the goals of humanism

The Open Society in Theory and Practice

Author: D. Germino,K. van Beijme

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401020566

Category: Social Science

Page: 334

View: 9408

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From June 28 until July 4, 1972, a group of scholars, all of them acade micians committed to the critical study of man and society which may be called political theory, met at The Rockefeller Foundation's VillaSerbelloni in Bellagio, Italy, to present papers on and discuss the subject of "The Open Society. " These papers, as revised, are published here, most of them for the first time. They reflect no consensus of view, nor were they intended to do so. That such a consensus did not emerge from the conference is not in our judgment a cause for regret; it may rather be regarded as a manifestation of a healthy and desirable plurality of approaches which itself indirectly tells us something important about the nature of the open society. All the papers deal in different contexts and from a variety of philosophi cal and theoretical perspectives with the interrelated themes of openness and the open society. Some of the panelists are skeptical of the capacity of modern industrial, or "post-industrial," society, with its heavy emphasis upon technological rationality to foster authentic openness under currently prevailing assumptions about man and nature.


Der Mensch in der Revolte

Author: Albert Camus

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644485313

Category: Fiction

Page: 400

View: 3850

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«Unsere Verbrecher sind nicht mehr jene entwaffneten Kinder, die zur Entschuldigung die Liebe anriefen. Sie sind im Gegenteil erwachsen und haben ein unwiderlegbares Alibi, die Philosophie nämlich, die zu allem dienen kann, sogar dazu, die Mörder in Richter zu verwandeln.» Mit der hier vorliegenden Essaysammlung setzt der Autor die Tradition der französichen Moralisten fort. Das strenge und anspruchsvolle Werk ist eine Absage an die Auffassung, daß Geschichte ein sinnvoller Ablauf sei. Er versucht nachzuweisen, daß die politischen Ideen von der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts bis heute Konstruktionen und Utopien waren, da sie das Absolute wollen, und deshalb notwendig ins Absurde, in Terror und legitimierten Mord einmünden mußten.

Introductory Psychology

Author: R.B. Burns,C.B. Dobson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401162794

Category: Psychology

Page: 700

View: 6434

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The last few years have seen a growth in the number of psychology courses which are being offered as single subject or combined studies options in universities, polytechnics and colleges of higher education. More recently, there has been a marked increase in the number of students in schools and colleges of further education taking 'A' level, '0' level and 'Ala' level psychology examinations. Psychology, too, features much more prominently in professional training schemes, and it is now quite common to encounter the subject in courses for police officers, clergy, teachers, nurses and other paramedical and caring profes sions. In the past, students had to rely extensively on a diet of psychology texts published in the USA, supplemented by a few modest British contributions, and by a number of specialist books written by scholars reflecting their particular interests. Nowadays, it is possible to point to a significantly larger number of British texts and monographs which deal with major issues in psychology, and a number of general textbooks have been written especially for school and college students preparing for GeE examinations.