Computer simulation in physical geography

Author: M. J. Kirkby

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471935469

Category: Science

Page: 180

View: 5986

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Computer Simulation in Physical Geography Second Edition M.J. Kirkby, University of Leeds, UK, P.S. Naden, Institute of Hydrology, UK, T.P. Burt, University of Oxford, UK and D.P. Butcher, University of Huddersfield, UK Simulation modelling has grown in importance in geographical teaching and project work ever since microcomputers have become widely available. By developing a broad range of usable programs in an environmental context, this second edition of Computer Simulation in Physical Geography may be used both as a physical geography textbook and as a pathway to learning standard programming, since substantial sections of the book are devoted to the design, formulation and best use of programs. The book opens with an introduction to the subject, followed by a series of chapters each of which is devoted to a different type of model, including black box models, process models, mass and energy balance models, and stochastic models. The second half of the book contains methods for model or program formulation and various means of verifying and calibrating models against field data. The choice of an appropriate model for a given situation is considered, together with the building of rationally based computer simulations from geographical assumptions. Example programs are drawn from ecology, hydrology, meteorology and hillslope and fluvial geomorphology, and these give a flavour of current research trends. All programs are contained on a supplementary disk in Microsoft QuickBASIC, QBASIC (standard with DOS 5-0) or GWBASIC (standard with earlier DOS versions). The distinct advantages of this second edition over the first are the major changes that have been made in updating the programs to the more structured environment of QuickBASIC, which also enables the utilisation of the superior CGA, EGA and VGA graphics on current DOS systems.

Contemporary Meanings in Physical Geography

From What to Why?

Author: Andre Roy,Stephen Trudgill

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134660030

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 4395

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Over the past twenty years, geography as an academic discipline has become more and more reflective, asking the key questions 'What are we doing?' 'Why are we doing it?'. These questions have, so far, been more enthusiastically taken up by human geography rather than physical geography. Contemporary Meanings in Physical Geography aims to redress the balance. Written and edited by a distinguished group of physical geographers, Contemporary Meanings in Physical Geography comprises of a collection of international writer's thoughts which reveal personal motivations, and look at tensions in the worlds of meaning in which physical geography is involved. How are the meanings of the physical environment derived? Is the future of physical geography one where the only, or at least the dominant, meanings are framed in the contexts of environmental issues. Covering a diverse and lively selection of topics, the contributors of this book offer guides to the contemporary debates in the philosophy of physical geography, and introduce the reader to its wider cultural significance. This book is an essential companion to anyone studying, or with an interest in, physical geography.


Integration of Computer Modeling and Field Observations in Geomorphology

Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium 2000

Author: John F. Shroder,Michael P. Bishop

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 9780444515322

Category: Science

Page: 196

View: 2938

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The integration of classic field-gathered data with new computer models has allowed many new advances in geomorphology, which the 31st Binghamton Millennium Symposium 2000 presents in this latest of the well-known Binghamton book series, the Integration of Computer Modeling and Field Observations in Geomorphology. Conceptual models have been most commonly inferred from analyses of topography and investigator perspectives derived from fieldwork. The main stumbling blocks to understanding surface processes, their interactions, temporal changes, and resulting landforms are the difficulty of observation, geological timescales involved, spatial-scale dependencies, and the inability to attribute differences to either process or age. Physically based computer models have thus become essential tools, primarily because of their ability to explore spatial and temporal trends and to determine the sensitivity of physical inputs to change without the difficulties of identification and generalization associated with the complexity of field studies. Thus, the combination of both methods, or the integration of field methods with computer modeling become a very powerful mechanism for robust understanding. This new book presents topics on fluvial processes of overland and channelized flow in arid, humid, and periglacial areas of high and low relief, as well as work on interlinked biogeographic and geomorphic fluctuations in alpine terrain, and ground penetrating radar of coastal geomorphology. Issues of long-term evolution of drainage networks are addressed in natural systems, as well as stream-table environments, and terrain analyses characterize surficial and subsurface geomorphic features by using GIS and remote sensing. Botanical and biogeomorphologic controls of landforms are assessed, along with issues of scientific visualization, cartographic representation, DEMs, spatial analyses, and scale dependencies.

Science, Philosophy and Physical Geography

Author: Robert Inkpen

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415279543

Category: Education

Page: 164

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This text explores the relationship between philosophy, science and physical geography, addressing an imbalance between a philosophically enriched human geography and a perceived philosophically ignorant physical geography.

Computer Simulation in Human Population Studies

Author: Bennett Dyke,Jean Walters MacCluer

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483264556

Category: Social Science

Page: 540

View: 3845

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Computer Simulation in Human Population Studies contains the proceedings of a conference held at Pennsylvania State University on June 12-14, 1972, under the sponsorship of the Social Science Research Council. The conference provided a forum for discussing the application of computer simulation techniques to human population studies and organized topics around four themes: anthropology and social systems; genetics and adaptive systems; demography; and simulation methodology. Comprised of 23 chapters, this volume begins with an analysis of two tests of computer microsimulation: the effect of an incest taboo on population viability, and the effect of age differences between spouses on the skewing of their consanguineal relationships. The reader is then introduced to computer simulation of incest prohibition and clan proscription rules in closed, finite population; an empirical perspective on simulation models of human population; and models applicable to geographic variation in humans. Subsequent chapters deal with the role of co-adapted sets in the process of adaptation; simulation of human reproduction; and the mathematics of population simulation models. This book will be of interest to anthropologists, geneticists, biologists, computer scientists, mathematicians, and social scientists.

Applied Geography

Principles and Practice : an Introduction to Useful Research in Physical, Environmental and Human Geography

Author: Michael Pacione

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415214193

Category: Science

Page: 632

View: 5962

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Offering an introduction to useful research in physical, environmental and human geography, this text provides a new focus and reference point for investigating and understanding problem-orientated research.

Key Methods in Geography

Author: Nicholas Clifford,Gill Valentine

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761974925

Category: Science

Page: 572

View: 6075

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Key Methods in Geography is an introduction for undergraduates to the principal methodological issues involved in the collection, analysis and presentation of geographical information. It provides an accessible primer, which will be used by students as a reference throughout their degree, on all issues from research design to presentation. A unique feature of the book is that it provides definitions of terms from both human geography and physical geography. Organized into four parts: Getting Started in Geographical Research; Data Collection in Human Geography; Data Collection in Physical Geography; Analyzing and Representing Geographical Data. Each chapter is comprised of a short definition, a summary of the principal arguments, a substantive 5,000-word discussion, the use of real-life examples, and annotated notes for further reading. The teaching of research methods is integral in all geography courses. Key Methods in Geography identifies the key analytical and observational strategies with which all geography undergraduates should be conversant.

Geographic Information Science and Mountain Geomorphology

Author: Michael Bishop,John F. Shroder

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540426400

Category: Science

Page: 486

View: 4056

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From the reviews: "Bishop and Schroder (both, Univ. of Nebraska at Omaha) have brought together an impressive group of practitioners in the relatively new application of geographic information science to mountain geomorphology. In doing so, they have produced valuable, first, overall coverage of a high-tech approach to mountain, three-dimensional research. More than 40 contributing authors discuss a wide range of related aspects.... The book is well bound and well produced; each chapter provides an extensive source of references. The numerous line drawings are clearly reproduced, although the mediocre quality of photographic reproduction limits the value of air photographs and satellite images. As is characteristic of many edited collections, there is some variation in chapter quality. Some of the writing is so dense that it requires minute concentration--one chapter, for instance, has 14 pages of references from a total of 43 pages. Nevertheless, this is a vital compendium for a rapidly expanding field of research. Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through professionals." (J. D. Ives, Choice, March 2005)

Numerische Simulation in der Moleküldynamik

Numerik, Algorithmen, Parallelisierung, Anwendungen

Author: Michael Griebel,Stephan Knapek,Gerhard Zumbusch,Attila Caglar

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 364218779X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 480

View: 4357

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Das Buch behandelt Methoden des wissenschaftlichen Rechnens in der Moleküldynamik, einem Bereich, der in vielen Anwendungen der Chemie, der Biowissenschaften, der Materialwissenschaften, insbesondere der Nanotechnologie, sowie der Astrophysik eine wichtige Rolle spielt. Es führt in die wichtigsten Simulationstechniken zur numerischen Behandlung der Newtonschen Bewegungsgleichungen ein. Der Schwerpunkt liegt hierbei auf der schnellen Auswertung kurz- und langreichweitiger Kräfte mittels Linked Cell-, P$/\3$M-, Baum- und Multipol-Verfahren, sowie deren paralleler Implementierung und Lastbalancierung auf Rechensystemen mit verteiltem Speicher. Die einzelnen Kapitel beinhalten darüberhinaus detailierte Hinweise, um die Verfahren Schritt für Schritt in ein Programmpaket umzusetzen. In zahlreichen farbigen Abbildungen werden Simulationsergebnisse für eine Reihe von Anwendungen präsentiert.

Advances in Computer Graphics III

Author: Maurice M. de Ruiter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540187882

Category: Computers

Page: 326

View: 1290

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The material in this book was presented in the tutorial programme of the Eurographics '87 Conference, held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1987. The book contains eight contributions, from leading experts in each field. Major aspects of computer graphics fundamentals, interactive techniques and three-dimensional modelling techniques are discussed and a state-of-the-art survey on the increasingly important area of desktop publishing is given. The theory of fractals is covered by presenting a thorough treatment of their mathematics and programming. Furthermore, overviews of several topics, such as the theory and methods of modelling three-dimensional shapes and objects, the fundamental concepts and current advances in user interface management systems, and existing CAD-interface specifications, are included. The book will be of interest to systems designers, application programmers and researchers who wish to gain a deeper knowledge of the state-of-the-art in the areas covered.

Simulation of Complex Systems in GIS

Author: Patrice Langlois

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118600991

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 7762

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This book provides a comprehensive view of geographical modeling. It first establishes the foundations of geographical modeling, covering such concepts as structure, organization, system, topologies, as well as the concept of time. Next, it tackles the use of computer tools for dynamic model building and presents several models applied to various themes, such as urban growth, natural risks, as well as political themes. Finally, a general model of the geographic agents system (GAS), which can be used as a basis for the construction of a model-building platform for dynamic spatial models is presented.

Computer Modelling for Sustainable Urban Design

Physical Principles, Methods and Applications

Author: Darren Robinson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136539352

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 3211

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This is the first book to directly address the physics of urban sustainability and how urban sustainability may be modelled and optimised. Starting with an introduction to the importance and key aspects of the topic, it moves on to a detailed consideration of the urban climate and pedestrian comfort. Comprehensive techniques for the modelling and optimisation of urban metabolism are then described, together with means for defining sustainability as the fitness function to be optimised. It ends with an eye to the future of sustainable urban design and the means available to urban designers and governors to help them to secure a more sustainable urban future. This book will be invaluable both in informing the next generation of urban planners, architects and engineers, and as a tool to current professionals that will directly contribute to the effectiveness of their work by allowing them to more successfully measure and model urban sustainability.

Complex Artificial Environments

Simulation, Cognition and VR in the Study and Planning of Cities

Author: Juval Portugali,Yuval Porṭugali

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540259176

Category: Architecture

Page: 322

View: 8725

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This book explores the possibilities of applying the theories of complexity and self-organization developed to account for various phenomena in the natural science to artifacts traditionally the realm of humanities and social sciences. The emphasis of this volume is on the development of cities and the impact of these methods on urban simulation methods.

Intelligent Control and Automation

International Conference on Intelligent Computing, ICIC 2006, Kunming, China, August, 2006

Author: De-Shuang Huang,George William Irwin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540372563

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1121

View: 3793

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Results of the International Conference on Intelligent Computing, ICIC 2006: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (LNAI), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics (LNBI), Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences (LNCIS). 142 revised full papers are organized in topical sections: Blind Source Separation; Intelligent Sensor Networks; Intelligent Control and Automation; and Data Fusion, Knowledge Discovery, and Data Mining. Includes a Special Session on Smart and Intelligent Home Technology.

Teachers Discovering Computers: Integrating Technology and Digital Media in the Classroom

Author: Gary Shelly,Thomas J. Cashman,Glenda Gunter,Randolph Gunter

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1423911806

Category: Education

Page: 596

View: 9002

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This title covers up-to-date topics in computer concepts, Internet and digital media integration, interactivity, extraordinary visual drawings and photographs, and unprecedented currency. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Ecogeography, demography, diversity and conservation of Phaseolus lunatus L. in the central valley of Costa Rica

Author: N.A

Publisher: Bioversity International

ISBN: 9290436387

Category: Lima bean

Page: 84

View: 5596

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Background to the project. The model species: Phaseolus lunatus L. The study area: The Central Valley of Costa Rica. Wild P. lunatus in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. In situ conservation of wild P. lunatus in the Central Valley. Conclusions and recommendations.

The SAGE Handbook of Geographical Knowledge

Author: John A Agnew,David N Livingstone

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446209547

Category: Science

Page: 656

View: 1451

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"A refreshingly innovative approach to charting geographical knowledge. A wide range of authors trace the social construction and contestation of geographical ideas through the sites of their production and their relational geographies of engagement. This creative and comprehensive book offers an extremely valuable tool to professionals and students alike." - Victoria Lawson, University of Washington "A Handbook that recasts geograph's history in original, thought-provoking ways. Eschewing the usual chronological march through leading figures and big ideas, it looks at geography against the backdrop of the places and institutional contexts where it has been produced, and the social-cum-intellectual currents underlying some of its most important concepts." - Alexander B. Murphy, University of Oregon The SAGE Handbook of Geographical Knowledge is a critical inquiry into how geography as a field of knowledge has been produced, re-produced, and re-imagined. It comprises three sections on geographical orientations, geography's venues, and critical geographical concepts and controversies. The first provides an overview of the genealogy of "geography". The second highlights the types of spatial settings and locations in which geographical knowledge has been produced. The third focuses on venues of primary importance in the historical geography of geographical thought. Orientations includes chapters on: Geography - the Genealogy of a Term; Geography's Narratives and Intellectual History Geography's Venues includes chapters on: Field; Laboratory; Observatory; Archive; Centre of Calculation; Mission Station; Battlefield; Museum; Public Sphere; Subaltern Space; Financial Space; Art Studio; Botanical/Zoological Gardens; Learned Societies Critical concepts and controversies - includes chapters on: Environmental Determinism; Region; Place; Nature and Culture; Development; Conservation; Geopolitics; Landscape; Time; Cycle of Erosion; Time; Gender; Race/Ethnicity; Social Class; Spatial Analysis; Glaciation; Ice Ages; Map; Climate Change; Urban/Rural. Comprehensive without claiming to be encyclopedic, textured and nuanced, this Handbook will be a key resource for all researchers with an interest in the pasts, presents and futures of geography.

21st Century Geography

Author: Joseph P. Stoltman

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 141297464X

Category: Science

Page: 883

View: 4963

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This is a theoretical and practical guide on how to undertake and navigate advanced research in the arts, humanities and social sciences.

A Guide to Information Sources in the Geographical Sciences

Author: Stephen Goddard

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780389204039

Category: Reference

Page: 273

View: 2326

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Geography is a wide-ranging discipline and the number of information sources available is truly enormous. These include printed books and journal articles, maps, satellite photographs, archives, statistical information, and much else. One particular problem facing geographers is that when one studies a foreign country, information may be available only in the foreign country and difficult to obtain. This book discusses the information sources available to geographers.