Computer simulation in physical geography

Author: M. J. Kirkby

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471935469

Category: Science

Page: 180

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Computer Simulation in Physical Geography Second Edition M.J. Kirkby, University of Leeds, UK, P.S. Naden, Institute of Hydrology, UK, T.P. Burt, University of Oxford, UK and D.P. Butcher, University of Huddersfield, UK Simulation modelling has grown in importance in geographical teaching and project work ever since microcomputers have become widely available. By developing a broad range of usable programs in an environmental context, this second edition of Computer Simulation in Physical Geography may be used both as a physical geography textbook and as a pathway to learning standard programming, since substantial sections of the book are devoted to the design, formulation and best use of programs. The book opens with an introduction to the subject, followed by a series of chapters each of which is devoted to a different type of model, including black box models, process models, mass and energy balance models, and stochastic models. The second half of the book contains methods for model or program formulation and various means of verifying and calibrating models against field data. The choice of an appropriate model for a given situation is considered, together with the building of rationally based computer simulations from geographical assumptions. Example programs are drawn from ecology, hydrology, meteorology and hillslope and fluvial geomorphology, and these give a flavour of current research trends. All programs are contained on a supplementary disk in Microsoft QuickBASIC, QBASIC (standard with DOS 5-0) or GWBASIC (standard with earlier DOS versions). The distinct advantages of this second edition over the first are the major changes that have been made in updating the programs to the more structured environment of QuickBASIC, which also enables the utilisation of the superior CGA, EGA and VGA graphics on current DOS systems.

Contemporary Meanings in Physical Geography

From What to Why?

Author: Andre Roy,Stephen Trudgill

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134660030

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 365

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Over the past twenty years, geography as an academic discipline has become more and more reflective, asking the key questions 'What are we doing?' 'Why are we doing it?'. These questions have, so far, been more enthusiastically taken up by human geography rather than physical geography. Contemporary Meanings in Physical Geography aims to redress the balance. Written and edited by a distinguished group of physical geographers, Contemporary Meanings in Physical Geography comprises of a collection of international writer's thoughts which reveal personal motivations, and look at tensions in the worlds of meaning in which physical geography is involved. How are the meanings of the physical environment derived? Is the future of physical geography one where the only, or at least the dominant, meanings are framed in the contexts of environmental issues. Covering a diverse and lively selection of topics, the contributors of this book offer guides to the contemporary debates in the philosophy of physical geography, and introduce the reader to its wider cultural significance. This book is an essential companion to anyone studying, or with an interest in, physical geography.

Integration of Computer Modeling and Field Observations in Geomorphology

Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium 2000

Author: John F. Shroder,Michael P. Bishop

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 9780444515322

Category: Science

Page: 196

View: 8406

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The integration of classic field-gathered data with new computer models has allowed many new advances in geomorphology, which the 31st Binghamton Millennium Symposium 2000 presents in this latest of the well-known Binghamton book series, the Integration of Computer Modeling and Field Observations in Geomorphology. Conceptual models have been most commonly inferred from analyses of topography and investigator perspectives derived from fieldwork. The main stumbling blocks to understanding surface processes, their interactions, temporal changes, and resulting landforms are the difficulty of observation, geological timescales involved, spatial-scale dependencies, and the inability to attribute differences to either process or age. Physically based computer models have thus become essential tools, primarily because of their ability to explore spatial and temporal trends and to determine the sensitivity of physical inputs to change without the difficulties of identification and generalization associated with the complexity of field studies. Thus, the combination of both methods, or the integration of field methods with computer modeling become a very powerful mechanism for robust understanding. This new book presents topics on fluvial processes of overland and channelized flow in arid, humid, and periglacial areas of high and low relief, as well as work on interlinked biogeographic and geomorphic fluctuations in alpine terrain, and ground penetrating radar of coastal geomorphology. Issues of long-term evolution of drainage networks are addressed in natural systems, as well as stream-table environments, and terrain analyses characterize surficial and subsurface geomorphic features by using GIS and remote sensing. Botanical and biogeomorphologic controls of landforms are assessed, along with issues of scientific visualization, cartographic representation, DEMs, spatial analyses, and scale dependencies.

Computer Simulation in Human Population Studies

Author: Bennett Dyke,Jean Walters MacCluer

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483264556

Category: Social Science

Page: 540

View: 9556

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Computer Simulation in Human Population Studies contains the proceedings of a conference held at Pennsylvania State University on June 12-14, 1972, under the sponsorship of the Social Science Research Council. The conference provided a forum for discussing the application of computer simulation techniques to human population studies and organized topics around four themes: anthropology and social systems; genetics and adaptive systems; demography; and simulation methodology. Comprised of 23 chapters, this volume begins with an analysis of two tests of computer microsimulation: the effect of an incest taboo on population viability, and the effect of age differences between spouses on the skewing of their consanguineal relationships. The reader is then introduced to computer simulation of incest prohibition and clan proscription rules in closed, finite population; an empirical perspective on simulation models of human population; and models applicable to geographic variation in humans. Subsequent chapters deal with the role of co-adapted sets in the process of adaptation; simulation of human reproduction; and the mathematics of population simulation models. This book will be of interest to anthropologists, geneticists, biologists, computer scientists, mathematicians, and social scientists.

Applied Geography

Principles and Practice : an Introduction to Useful Research in Physical, Environmental and Human Geography

Author: Michael Pacione

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415214193

Category: Science

Page: 632

View: 7915

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Offering an introduction to useful research in physical, environmental and human geography, this text provides a new focus and reference point for investigating and understanding problem-orientated research.

GIS and Environmental Modeling

Progress and Research Issues

Author: Michael F. Goodchild,Louis T. Steyaert,Bradley O. Parks

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470236772

Category: Science

Page: 504

View: 9182

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GIS and Environmental Modeling: Progress and Research Issues Michael F. Goodchild, Louis T. Steyaert, Bradley O. Parks, Carol Johnston, David Maidment, Michael Crane, and Sandi Glendinning, Editors With growing pressure on natural resources and landscapes there is an increasing need to predict the consequences of any changes to the environment. Modelling plays an important role in this by helping our understanding of the environment and by forecasting likely impacts. In recent years moves have been made to link models to Geographical Information Systems to provide a means of analysing changes over an area as well as over time. GIS and Environmental Modeling explores the progress made to date in integrating these two software systems. Approaches to the subject are made from theoretical, technical as well as data stand points. The existing capabilities of current systems are described along with important issues of data availability, accuracy and error. Various case studies illustrate this and highlight the common concepts and issues that exist between researchers in different environmental fields. The future needs and prospects for integrating GIS and environmental models are also explored with developments in both data handling and modelling discussed. The book brings together the knowledge and experience of over 100 researchers from academic, commercial and government backgrounds who work in a wide range of disciplines. The themes followed in the text provide a fund of knowledge and guidance for those involved in environmental modelling and GIS. The book is easily accessible for readers with a basic GIS knowledge and the ideas and results of the research are clearly illustrated with both colour and black and white graphics.

Science, Philosophy and Physical Geography

Author: Robert Inkpen,Graham Wilson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136654631

Category: Education

Page: 256

View: 8690

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This accessible and engaging text explores the relationship between philosophy, science and physical geography. It addresses an imbalance that exists in opinion, teaching and to a lesser extent research, between a philosophically enriched human geography and a perceived philosophically empty physical geography. The text challenges the myth that there is a single self-evident scientific method that can, and is, applied in a straightforward manner by physical geographers. It demonstrates the variety of alternative philosophical perspectives and emphasizes the difference that the real world geographical context and the geographer make to the study of environmental phenomenon. This includes a consideration of the dynamic relationship between human and physical geography. Finally, the text demonstrates the relevance of philosophy for both an understanding of published material and for the design and implementation of studies in physical geography. This edition has been fully updated with two new chapters on field studies and modelling, as well as greater discussion of ethical issues and forms of explanation. The book explores key themes such as reconstructing environmental change, species interactions and fluvial geomorphology, and is complimented throughout with case studies to illustrate concepts.

Numerische Simulation in der Moleküldynamik

Numerik, Algorithmen, Parallelisierung, Anwendungen

Author: Michael Griebel,Stephan Knapek,Gerhard Zumbusch,Attila Caglar

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 364218779X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 480

View: 3325

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Das Buch behandelt Methoden des wissenschaftlichen Rechnens in der Moleküldynamik, einem Bereich, der in vielen Anwendungen der Chemie, der Biowissenschaften, der Materialwissenschaften, insbesondere der Nanotechnologie, sowie der Astrophysik eine wichtige Rolle spielt. Es führt in die wichtigsten Simulationstechniken zur numerischen Behandlung der Newtonschen Bewegungsgleichungen ein. Der Schwerpunkt liegt hierbei auf der schnellen Auswertung kurz- und langreichweitiger Kräfte mittels Linked Cell-, P$/\3$M-, Baum- und Multipol-Verfahren, sowie deren paralleler Implementierung und Lastbalancierung auf Rechensystemen mit verteiltem Speicher. Die einzelnen Kapitel beinhalten darüberhinaus detailierte Hinweise, um die Verfahren Schritt für Schritt in ein Programmpaket umzusetzen. In zahlreichen farbigen Abbildungen werden Simulationsergebnisse für eine Reihe von Anwendungen präsentiert.

Key Methods in Geography

Author: Nicholas Clifford,Gill Valentine

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761974925

Category: Science

Page: 572

View: 1365

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Key Methods in Geography is an introduction for undergraduates to the principal methodological issues involved in the collection, analysis and presentation of geographical information. It provides an accessible primer, which will be used by students as a reference throughout their degree, on all issues from research design to presentation. A unique feature of the book is that it provides definitions of terms from both human geography and physical geography. Organized into four parts: Getting Started in Geographical Research; Data Collection in Human Geography; Data Collection in Physical Geography; Analyzing and Representing Geographical Data. Each chapter is comprised of a short definition, a summary of the principal arguments, a substantive 5,000-word discussion, the use of real-life examples, and annotated notes for further reading. The teaching of research methods is integral in all geography courses. Key Methods in Geography identifies the key analytical and observational strategies with which all geography undergraduates should be conversant.

Geographic Information Science and Mountain Geomorphology

Author: Michael Bishop,John F. Shroder

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540426400

Category: Science

Page: 486

View: 1353

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From the reviews: "Bishop and Schroder (both, Univ. of Nebraska at Omaha) have brought together an impressive group of practitioners in the relatively new application of geographic information science to mountain geomorphology. In doing so, they have produced valuable, first, overall coverage of a high-tech approach to mountain, three-dimensional research. More than 40 contributing authors discuss a wide range of related aspects.... The book is well bound and well produced; each chapter provides an extensive source of references. The numerous line drawings are clearly reproduced, although the mediocre quality of photographic reproduction limits the value of air photographs and satellite images. As is characteristic of many edited collections, there is some variation in chapter quality. Some of the writing is so dense that it requires minute concentration--one chapter, for instance, has 14 pages of references from a total of 43 pages. Nevertheless, this is a vital compendium for a rapidly expanding field of research. Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through professionals." (J. D. Ives, Choice, March 2005)

Glossary of Terms for Physical Geography

Author: Michael Pidwirny

Publisher: Our Planet Earth Publishing

ISBN: 0987702904

Category: Science

Page: 559

View: 7322

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IMPORTANT - This Google Play version is best viewed with a computer using Google Chrome, Firefox or Apple Safari browsers. Glossary of Terms for Physical Geography is an eBook that helps students define and learn terms commonly used in Physical Geography. This version of the glossary contains over 3800 terms. A great FREE learning resource to have on your computer, tablet, or iPad.

Advances in Computer Graphics III

Author: Maurice M. de Ruiter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540187882

Category: Computers

Page: 326

View: 2481

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The material in this book was presented in the tutorial programme of the Eurographics '87 Conference, held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1987. The book contains eight contributions, from leading experts in each field. Major aspects of computer graphics fundamentals, interactive techniques and three-dimensional modelling techniques are discussed and a state-of-the-art survey on the increasingly important area of desktop publishing is given. The theory of fractals is covered by presenting a thorough treatment of their mathematics and programming. Furthermore, overviews of several topics, such as the theory and methods of modelling three-dimensional shapes and objects, the fundamental concepts and current advances in user interface management systems, and existing CAD-interface specifications, are included. The book will be of interest to systems designers, application programmers and researchers who wish to gain a deeper knowledge of the state-of-the-art in the areas covered.

Simulation of Complex Systems in GIS

Author: Patrice Langlois

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118600991

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 4101

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This book provides a comprehensive view of geographical modeling. It first establishes the foundations of geographical modeling, covering such concepts as structure, organization, system, topologies, as well as the concept of time. Next, it tackles the use of computer tools for dynamic model building and presents several models applied to various themes, such as urban growth, natural risks, as well as political themes. Finally, a general model of the geographic agents system (GAS), which can be used as a basis for the construction of a model-building platform for dynamic spatial models is presented.

Computer Modelling for Sustainable Urban Design

Physical Principles, Methods and Applications

Author: Darren Robinson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136539352

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 9249

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This is the first book to directly address the physics of urban sustainability and how urban sustainability may be modelled and optimised. Starting with an introduction to the importance and key aspects of the topic, it moves on to a detailed consideration of the urban climate and pedestrian comfort. Comprehensive techniques for the modelling and optimisation of urban metabolism are then described, together with means for defining sustainability as the fitness function to be optimised. It ends with an eye to the future of sustainable urban design and the means available to urban designers and governors to help them to secure a more sustainable urban future. This book will be invaluable both in informing the next generation of urban planners, architects and engineers, and as a tool to current professionals that will directly contribute to the effectiveness of their work by allowing them to more successfully measure and model urban sustainability.

Complex Artificial Environments

Simulation, Cognition and VR in the Study and Planning of Cities

Author: Juval Portugali,Yuval Porṭugali

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540259176

Category: Architecture

Page: 322

View: 7487

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This book explores the possibilities of applying the theories of complexity and self-organization developed to account for various phenomena in the natural science to artifacts traditionally the realm of humanities and social sciences. The emphasis of this volume is on the development of cities and the impact of these methods on urban simulation methods.

Intelligent Control and Automation

International Conference on Intelligent Computing, ICIC 2006, Kunming, China, August, 2006

Author: De-Shuang Huang,George William Irwin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540372563

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1121

View: 9580

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Results of the International Conference on Intelligent Computing, ICIC 2006: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (LNAI), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics (LNBI), Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences (LNCIS). 142 revised full papers are organized in topical sections: Blind Source Separation; Intelligent Sensor Networks; Intelligent Control and Automation; and Data Fusion, Knowledge Discovery, and Data Mining. Includes a Special Session on Smart and Intelligent Home Technology.

Part 3. The Atmosphere

Part 3 of the eBook Understanding Physical Geography

Author: Michael Pidwirny

Publisher: Our Planet Earth Publishing


Category: Science

Page: 266

View: 7294

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IMPORTANT - This Google Play version is best viewed with a computer using Google Chrome, Firefox or Apple Safari browsers. This document consists of six chapters from the eBook Understanding Physical Geography: Chapter 5: Atmospheric Structure and Radiation Transfer; Chapter 6: Energy, Temperature and Heat; Chapter 7: Atmospheric Pressure and Wind; Chapter 8: Thunderstorms, Mid-Latitude Cyclones and Hurricanes; Chapter 9: Climatic Regions and Climate Change; and Chapter 10: Human Alteration of the Atmosphere. This eBook was written for students taking introductory Physical Geography taught at a college or university.

Teachers Discovering Computers: Integrating Technology and Digital Media in the Classroom

Author: Gary Shelly,Thomas J. Cashman,Glenda Gunter,Randolph Gunter

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1423911806

Category: Education

Page: 596

View: 1694

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This title covers up-to-date topics in computer concepts, Internet and digital media integration, interactivity, extraordinary visual drawings and photographs, and unprecedented currency. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.