CULTURAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ALCOHOLISM AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE
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In this highly informative book on the sociocultural interactions between alcoholism and drug abuse, experts explore the relationship of such factors as ethnicity, family, religion, and gender to chemical abuse and address important implications for treatment.
Here is a timely volume that reviews the current state of knowledge of cocaine use. Some of the country’s leading authorities on cocaine use and abuse examine the pharmacology and neurochemistry of central stimulant abuse with a focus on the specific effects of cocaine. They also address recent experiences concerning the epidemiology of cocaine use from several different databases. This highly useful and informative book also explains the effectiveness of the existing diagnostic and treatment approaches.
The authors argue that cross-cultural and scientific studies yield evidence that the present policies in the US which seek to control alcohol consumption are ineffective. They argue that the distinctions between acceptable and unacceptable drinking should be clarified and that, rather than stigmatiz
The first authoritative guide to how the world drinks, this reference details alcohol use in different countries and cultures. Variation is striking, with alcohol sometimes a food, a sacrament, a symbol, a tool, a tranquilizer, a medicine, a love potion, or an object of scorn—often with very different meanings and uses in a single country. This volume reveals multicultural and ethnic beliefs, practices, and attitudes about drinking around the world. An extensive introduction discusses the close link between alcohol and culture and provides a foundation for the rest of the book. Each of the following chapters is written by an expert contributor and discusses alcohol and culture in a particular country. Chapters discuss historical trends, drinking among ethnic and religious minorities, national policies, and social outcomes. Countries range from industrial nations known for their alcohol research, to developing nations and to places famous for drinking. A concluding chapter highlights important similarities and differences.
Today, alcohol and other drug abuse scientists have access to a broad array of clinical resources that integrate a commonsensical approach to addiction treatment with science. Addictions: A Comprehensive Guidebook is a superb example of one such resource. Here, in one volume, is both practical and scholarly information for alcohol and drug abuse specialists, primary care providers, clinicians, policy-makers, and others involved in programs that are geared to help those who abuse or are dependent on alcohol and other drugs. Its scope is a testament to how far drug abuse scientists and practitioners have come in defining what they do and to how they are able to do it effectively through a growing body of scientific behavioral research. Addictions is organized into seven parts that range from the prevalence of certain addictions to their identification and treatment to the social effects of these addictions. In fact, this volume contains nearly all of the basic information a professional or graduate student needs to learn about or treat substance abuse.
Addiction is a powerful and destructive condition impacting large portions of the population around the world. While typically associated with substances, such as drugs and alcohol, technology and internet addiction have become a concern in recent years as technology use has become ubiquitous. Psychological, Social, and Cultural Aspects of Internet Addiction is a critical scholarly resource that sheds light on the relationship between psycho-social variables and internet addiction. Featuring coverage on a broad range of topics such as human-computer interaction, academic performance, and online behavior, this book is geared towards psychologists, counselors, graduate-level students, and researchers studying psychology and technology use.
Substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) have been documented in a number of cultures since the beginnings of recorded time and represent major societal concerns in the present day. The Oxford Handbook of Substance Use and Substance Use Disorders provides comprehensive reviews of key areas of inquiry into the fundamental nature of substance use and SUDs, their features, causes, consequences, course, treatment, and prevention. It is clear that understanding these various aspects of substance use and SUDs requires a multidisciplinary perspective that considers the pharmacology of drugs of abuse, genetic variation in these acute and chronic effects, and psychological processes in the context of the interpersonal and cultural contexts. Comprising two volumes, this Handbook also highlights a range of opportunities and challenges facing those interested in the basic understanding of the nature of these phenomena and novel approaches to assess, prevent, and treat these conditions with the goal of reducing the enormous burden these problems place on our global society. Chapters in Volume 1 cover the historical and cultural contexts of substance use and its consequences, its epidemiology and course, etiological processes from the perspective of neuropharmacology, genetics, personality, development, motivation, and the interpersonal and larger social environment. Chapters in Volume 2 cover major health and social consequences of substance involvement, psychiatric comorbidity, assessment, and interventions. Each chapter highlights key issues in the respective topic area and raises unanswered questions for future research. All chapters are authored by leading scholars in each topic. The level of coverage is sufficiently deep to be of value to both trainees and established scientists and clinicians interested in an evidenced-based approach.
Substance use and abuse are two of the most frequent psychological problems clinicians encounter. Mainstream approaches focus on the biological and psychological factors supporting drug abuse. But to fully comprehend the issue, clinicians need to consider the social, historical, and cultural factors responsible for drug-related problems. Substance Use and Abuse: Cultural and Historical Perspectives provides an inclusive explanation of the human desire to take drugs. Using a multidisciplinary framework, authors Russil Durrant and Jo Thakker explore the cultural and historical variables that contribute to drug use. Integrating biological, psychosocial, and cultural-historical perspectives, this innovative and accessible volume addresses the fundamental question of why drug use is such a ubiquitous feature of human society.
Examine the worldwide phenomenon of substance abuse and addiction! International Aspects of Social Work Practice in the Addictions examines current social work practice in the addictions around the world. Researchers and practitioners address the abuse of and addiction to alcohol and other drugs and the current policies impacting the treatment of these substances in different countries. The book looks at the substances abused, the scope of the problems, the social reactions, the treatment approaches, and the role of professionals in addressing issues unique to each country, providing a more critical understanding of the socioeconomic and cultural influences on treatment systems. International Aspects of Social Work Practice in the Addictions presents cross-cultural perspectives on the effects of substance abuse and addiction on social policies, institutional practices, sources of funding, and social work methods. The book examines the rapid social changes that go hand in hand with increased rates of psychoactive substance problems and recognizes addiction as a complex biopsychosocial phenomenon that responds to intervention. The countries represented by the book's contributors include: Israel Ireland Germany Australia Singapore the Netherlands the United Kingdom the former Soviet Union and the United States International Aspects of Social Work Practice in the Addictions also includes book reviews related to cultural issues and a roundtable discussion concerning the legalization of drugs with perspectives from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. This unique book is a vital resource for clinicians, academics, and researchers.
This work uses classical sociological theory to demonstrate how the processes of rationalization and modernization have altered why, how, and how frequently people consume drugs. It is with great pleasure that I introduce this important book on drug use. While books on the subject abound, it is always refreshing to find a scholarly text on drug use that offers a new vantage point on this complicated and ever present social phenomenon. This is such a book. James Hawdon has skillfully synthesized classic sociological thought to craft a general theory of drugs that provides us with significant insights into human drug use. He has also painstakingly gathered the existing data on drug use throughout the world to put his new theory to the test. The result is a broad macro-sociological theory of drug use, firmly grounded in a wealth of empirical evidence, which has much to offer both academics and policy makers alike. drug and what is not, the book provides a working definition of drugs that includes both the psychoactive aspects of substances and the political reality that goes into defining what substances society recognizes as drugs. Drugs have become extremely politicized. Whether it is moral entrepreneurs concerned with saving souls, political entrepreneurs concerned with constituencies and elections, or some other interested parties, drugs have come to be defined as magical substances that are somehow different from other things. Hawdon demonstrates that this special status that drugs have acquired is largely unfounded. While drugs can be very powerful substances, treating drugs as totally different from all other commodities has led many to approach issues related to drug use in a manner that is often misguided or even counterproductive. It is important to remember that drugs, both legal and illegal, are basically just commodities. The same economic forces of supply and demand that influence the consumption patterns of other commodities impact the consumption of drugs. rationalization, also shape these consumption patterns. And demonizing these substances tends to obscure the social reality of drugs and drug use. The nature of drug use is largely predicated on the context in which the drug use takes place. Hawdon points out that whether or not a drug has been socially defined as sacred by a social group plays an essential role in how a drug is used and the extent to which it is abused by members of that group. There is nothing inherently sacred about any given drug. A drug becomes sacred only when the collectivity defines it as such and maintains beliefs and rites that support the drug's sacred status. Moreover, social forces such as modernization and scientific rationality have increasingly impacted religious practices and, in turn, changed the nature of sacred drug use. This influence is especially evident in the patterns of drug use in more modernized western societies. Hawdon notes that the differences in social control over sacred versus profane drug using behaviors are important. certain drug using behaviors as well. In contrast, restrictions on drugs defined as profane are basically negative in nature, either restricting or prohibiting drug use, but not requiring drug use. The difference has significant ramifications. Sacred drug use requires the use of the sacred drugs by certain people at specific times and in a specific manner. At the same time, generally, the proscriptions of sacred drug use tend to make abuse of these drugs much less likely and the rituals related to sacred use also serve an integrative function for the people within this belief system. Conversely, the use of profane drugs is not so influenced, thus drugs defined as profane are prone to greater variations in who, when, and how they are used. Profane drugs are also more likely to be abused and to be socially disintegrative with regard to the larger society, fostering the development of distinct subgroups. And while groups within a society may disagree on what is sacred drug use and what is not, these insights can have important policy implications. the nature of sacred and profane drug use. Pre-modern societies saw a world filled with the supernatural in which sacred drug use could literally transform people, facilitate spiritual journeys to other worlds, and manipulate the gods. In modern societies, however, the growing influence of modernization, science and rational thought has led to a demystification of the world, which has reduced the emphasis on religion and dealing directly with the supernatural. As the predominant worldview has grown more secular, drug use has become more profane and less subject to the sacred proscriptions of earlier times. Sacred drug use has become more abstract, symbolic, and otherworldly in focus with less direct control on drug use. Meanwhile, an increased emphasis on rational thought and science has produced a stronger emphasis on individual instrumental action, resulting in an increase in recreational drug use. Secular society is a society based largely on laws but, unlike the absolute nature of religious beliefs, laws are more relative and change much more rapidly. control of drug use is more derivative than direct. Thus, modern western societies that glorify individualism and the freedom to make personal choices by their very nature reduce the influence of communal restraints and increase the likelihood of greater variation in who uses drugs, what drugs they use, and how they use them. Subcultures may develop in reaction to the disenchantment of the world and use their own sacred drugs to reintroduce the mystical, but the rationalization process eventually changes even these groups. Hawdon's work, supported by numerous examples and global data, show that rates of drug use are higher in nations or in regions that are more developed. The rise of synthetic drugs and the continuous growth and spread of pharmaceutical knowledge makes many new drugs readily available. Modern factories produce drugs faster. Drugs become cheaper and easier to obtain. Thus, the process of modernization increases the variety of drugs available and the variety of drugs used for all segments of society. Modernization also affects the structure of social control mechanisms related to drug use. pattern of drug use in modernizing societies throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. As industrialization rapidly modernizes various aspects of a given society, drug use expands rapidly, and then slowly stabilizes. This is followed by a dramatic decrease in drug use. This curvilinear pattern is related to changes in social control mechanisms. Traditional sources of informal social control are weakened by the processes of modernization and eventually replaced by formal social control in the form of anti-drug laws. The changing nature of work and the growing interdependence of social institutions, both nationally and internationally, contribute to a new emphasis on sobriety. This has been coupled with a shifting emphasis on the importance of achieved over ascribed status in modern societies. The result is an increasing correlation of drug use patterns with achieved social status in contrast to less modernized societies where ascribed status plays a much greater role in determining drug use patterns. drug use as societies become more modern and more egalitarian. Hawdon provides ample evidence to demonstrate how cyclical patterns of drug use found within societies are closely related to the status of those who are using the drugs and the perceived dangers of the drugs being used. Typically, new drugs come along or old drugs are rediscovered by societal elites. Over time, the use of these drugs spreads to other segments of society and eventually to people in the lower segments of society. Then the use of these drugs falls out of favor in elite circles, perhaps due to the arrival of another new drug or the increased social costs of being associated with a drug that is now identified with low social status. It is at this point in the cycle that anti-drug laws tend to appear which target these drugs that are now primarily used by people with lower social status. Not coincidentally, these lower status users have fewer resources to influence the law making process or to conceal their drug use.
Biological , Psychological, and Environmental Factors
Author: Mark Galizio,Stephen A. Maisto
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
With the recent increase in the scope of drug and alcohol problems has come an awareness of the need for solutions. In this context, federal support for research on drug problems increased tremendously during the last 10 to 15 years with the establishment of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Funding from these and other sources has led to a substantial increase in the quantity and quality ofpublished work related to substance abuse. As data accumulate, it is becoming more apparent that substance abuse problems are extremely complex and are influenced by a variety ofbiological psychological, and environmental variables. Un fortunately it has proved difficult to go beyond this conclusion to a de scription of how these multiple factors work tagether to influence the development of, and recovery from, drug and alcohol dependence. The purpose of this book is to try to meet that objective by including, in one volume, Iiterature reviews and theoretical analyses from a wide variety of drug researchers. We chose the authors in an attempt to assure that each of the various Ievels of analysis appropriate to the substance abuse problems would be included. In each case, the author was asked to consider how the variables in is or her particular domain might con tribute to the appearance of individual differences in both alcohol and drug problems.
Written by John Story of Bluegrass Community and Technical College, this scenario-based guide will help you study effectively. It contains chapter summaries, key words, sample questions, activities, crossword puzzles, concept maps, and Internet resources for every chapter of the text. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Containing more than 450 entries, this easy-to-read encyclopedia provides concise information about the history of and recent trends in drug use and drug abuse in the United States—a societal problem with an estimated cost of $559 billion a year. • Contains more than 450 detailed entries on topics ranging from drugs themselves—such as alcohol, codeine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamines—to key individuals like Harry Anslinger to organizations such as the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) • Covers the latest developments in U.S. policies and public attitudes toward drugs and drug use • Provides citations with each entry to guide users to other valuable research resources • Features carefully selected primary documents—including excerpts from important laws, policies, and campaigns—that have shaped American drug policy over the decades
Assesses the presentation of alcohol in the mass media. Intended to stimulate policy-relevant research. Contains a collection of articles on: the mass media, alcohol, and culture: an overview; a review of research on alcohol advertising and media content; advertising and marketing: applying the principles, practices , and outcomes to alcoholic beverages; health promotion: public service announcements, media campaigns, and media advocacy; and a synthesis of the issues. Illustrated.
Pathways to Self-discovery and Change : the Provider's Guide
Author: Harvey B. Milkman,Kenneth W. Wanberg
'Milkman and Wanberg's program rests upon the best that science has to offer. Once this workbook stimulates change, it pays attention to the principles of relapse prevention that will help young people stay changed - and this is the litmus test for any treatment program that targets behavioral problems.' -- Dr. Howard J. Shaffer, Ph.D., C.A.S. , Director &BAD:amp; Associate Professor, Division on Addictions, Harvard Medical School Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 'Pathways to Self-Discovery and Change is the most comprehensive and thoughtful program we have seen to help at-risk youth gain freedom from crime and drugs and develop attitudes and skills to lead productive prosocial lives.' -- G. Alan Marlatt, Ph.D. and George A. Parks, Ph.D. , Addictive Behaviors Research Center, University of Washington 'This exceptional and widely needed program shows great promise as a developmentally appropriate treatment model for adolescents who manifest co-occurring disturbances with substance abuse and criminal activity. It is uniquely designed to interest and engage high-risk teenagers in a thoughtful array of cognitive-behavioral restructuring exercises that are geared to promote fulfilling and responsible life choices.' -- Lloyd I. Sederer, MD, Formerly Director of Clinical Services, American Psychiatric Association, and Medical Director , McLean Hospital/Harvard Medical SchoolTHE PROVIDERÆS GUIDE (Criminal Conduct and Substance Abuse Treatment for Adolescents) identifies psychological, biological, and social factors that contribute to the onset of adolescent deviance, including substance abuse, delinquency, and crime. Causal models for these problem behaviors are described, followed by a review of assessment and treatment protocols widely used in contemporary practice. Guidelines are provided for delivery of the 32- session PSD-C treatment curriculum, specifically designed for adolescents who manifest co-existing juvenile justice and substance abuse problems. The PSD-C ProviderÆs Guide explains how effective adolescent treatment derives from integration of the following evidence-based: strategies: motivational enhancement; stages of change; gender and diversity proficiency; cognitive-behavioral skill development; relapse and recidivism prevention; differential assessment; and individualized treatment planning. The ProviderÆs Guide delineates principles for effective adolescent-focused treatment in tandem with the ParticipantÆs Workbook: Pathways to Self-Discovery and Change (PSD-C).
Updating and expanding the classic Psychological Theories of Drinking and Alcoholism, this fully revised second edition incorporates state-of-the-art presentations from leaders in the alcoholism field. Contributors review established and emerging approaches that guide research into the psychological processes influencing drinking and alcoholism. The volume's multidisciplinary approach also takes into account biological, pharmacological, and social factors, offering important insights into the development and escalation of drinking problems and the various approaches to treatment. Including significantly expanded coverage of developmental, social learning, and cognitive theories, the book features new chapters on genetics, neurobiology, and emotions.
Alcohol and nicotine addiction mostly occur together. Over the last ten years therapeutic aspects and motivational strategies have been considerably improved. Hence, groups and subgroups have been defined and can be treated with specific medication and tailor-made psychotherapies, leading in the long term to considerably better and more effective results than the once broadly applied, rigorous abstinence -based therapies. However, alcohol and nicotine addiction still represent major medical and social problems. In this book, new therapeutic approaches are comprehensively described, outlining the different interactions between personality, environment and the effects of the substance. In addition to prevention-based therapies and diagnosis, essential psychological and sociological strategies, as well as medication-based therapies, are also presented in detail. All of these therapies have realistic aims and are of global validity. In addition, the book provides a broad overview of the American and European epidemiology of alcohol and nicotine addictions. The book is written for all those who care for and offer professional therapy for alcohol and nicotine-addicted patients.
The Complex Link Between Aging, Work Disengagement, and Substance Misuse -- and What To Do About It
Author: Peter A. Bamberger,Samuel B. Bacharach
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Evidence from both local and national surveys suggests that substance misuse and abuse among older adults in the United States is a "hidden epidemic" that poses a major threat to the welfare and quality of life of older drinkers and their families, and has significant public health implications. Based on their findings from a 10-year, NIH-funded study of retirement, aging, and substance misuse, Peter Bamberger and Samuel Bacharach examine the complex web of factors contributing to the precipitation and exacerbation of substance problems among older adults. They discuss the individual and public health implications of such problems, as well as some of the evidence-based steps that may be taken to prevent their emergence and help those in need of assistance for policy-makers and health practitioners. This book provides a single-source review of the latest research assessing the magnitude and costs of older-adult substance abuse, as well as detailed analysis of the epidemiology of older-adult substance abuse. The authors provide an analysis of the efficacy of alternative prevention and treatment strategies, and present scientific evidence in a user-friendly format, highlighting extensive interview data to accompany their statistical results. The illustrations offered by these real life cases not only provide a sense of richness and understanding to a complex issue, but also offer a fitting reminder to the reader that this is an issue affecting people we know and families like our own.