Fundamentals of Dependable Computing for Software Engineers

Author: John Knight

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439862559

Category: Computers

Page: 433

View: 918

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Fundamentals of Dependable Computing for Software Engineers presents the essential elements of computer system dependability. The book describes a comprehensive dependability-engineering process and explains the roles of software and software engineers in computer system dependability. Readers will learn: Why dependability matters What it means for a system to be dependable How to build a dependable software system How to assess whether a software system is adequately dependable The author focuses on the actions needed to reduce the rate of failure to an acceptable level, covering material essential for engineers developing systems with extreme consequences of failure, such as safety-critical systems, security-critical systems, and critical infrastructure systems. The text explores the systems engineering aspects of dependability and provides a framework for engineers to reason and make decisions about software and its dependability. It also offers a comprehensive approach to achieve software dependability and includes a bibliography of the most relevant literature. Emphasizing the software engineering elements of dependability, this book helps software and computer engineers in fields requiring ultra-high levels of dependability, such as avionics, medical devices, automotive electronics, weapon systems, and advanced information systems, construct software systems that are dependable and within budget and time constraints.

Software Development

An Open Source Approach

Author: Allen Tucker,Ralph Morelli,Chamindra de Silva

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439884609

Category: Computers

Page: 400

View: 2127

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To understand the principles and practice of software development, there is no better motivator than participating in a software project with real-world value and a life beyond the academic arena. Software Development: An Open Source Approach immerses students directly into an agile free and open source software (FOSS) development process. It focuses on the methodologies and goals that drive the development of FOSS, combining principles with real-world skill building, such as debugging, refactoring, and writing. The text explains the software development process through an integration of FOSS principles, agile techniques, modern collaboration tools, community involvement, and teamwork. The authors highlight the value of collaboration as a fundamental paradigm for software development. They show how an effective development team can often create better quality software than an individual working in isolation. Written by experienced software developers and educators, this book enables students to gain a rich appreciation of the principles and practice of FOSS development. It also helps them become better writers, programmers, and software community members. Web Resource The book’s companion website provides a wealth of resources: Downloadable FOSS development projects, including design documents, use cases, and code bases A discussion forum for instructors and students to share their experiences and exchange ideas about particular issues raised by these projects Supporting materials for common FOSS development tasks, such as setting up a version control system, an IDE, a project code base, and a unit test suite Additional exercises that reflect a wide variety of software projects and other activities

Introduction to Software Engineering, Second Edition

Author: Ronald J. Leach

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1498705286

Category: Computers

Page: 402

View: 7995

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Practical Guidance on the Efficient Development of High-Quality Software Introduction to Software Engineering, Second Edition equips students with the fundamentals to prepare them for satisfying careers as software engineers regardless of future changes in the field, even if the changes are unpredictable or disruptive in nature. Retaining the same organization as its predecessor, this second edition adds considerable material on open source and agile development models. The text helps students understand software development techniques and processes at a reasonably sophisticated level. Students acquire practical experience through team software projects. Throughout much of the book, a relatively large project is used to teach about the requirements, design, and coding of software. In addition, a continuing case study of an agile software development project offers a complete picture of how a successful agile project can work. The book covers each major phase of the software development life cycle, from developing software requirements to software maintenance. It also discusses project management and explains how to read software engineering literature. Three appendices describe software patents, command-line arguments, and flowcharts.

Software Test Attacks to Break Mobile and Embedded Devices

Author: Jon Duncan Hagar

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 146657531X

Category: Computers

Page: 377

View: 7314

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Address Errors before Users Find Them Using a mix-and-match approach, Software Test Attacks to Break Mobile and Embedded Devices presents an attack basis for testing mobile and embedded systems. Designed for testers working in the ever-expanding world of "smart" devices driven by software, the book focuses on attack-based testing that can be used by individuals and teams. The numerous test attacks show you when a software product does not work (i.e., has bugs) and provide you with information about the software product under test. The book guides you step by step starting with the basics. It explains patterns and techniques ranging from simple mind mapping to sophisticated test labs. For traditional testers moving into the mobile and embedded area, the book bridges the gap between IT and mobile/embedded system testing. It illustrates how to apply both traditional and new approaches. For those working with mobile/embedded systems without an extensive background in testing, the book brings together testing ideas, techniques, and solutions that are immediately applicable to testing smart and mobile devices.

Cyber Security Essentials

Author: James Graham,Ryan Olson,Rick Howard

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439851265

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 342

View: 860

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The sophisticated methods used in recent high-profile cyber incidents have driven many to need to understand how such security issues work. Demystifying the complexity often associated with information assurance, Cyber Security Essentials provides a clear understanding of the concepts behind prevalent threats, tactics, and procedures. To accomplish this, the team of security professionals from VeriSign’s iDefense® Security Intelligence Services supply an extensive review of the computer security landscape. Although the text is accessible to those new to cyber security, its comprehensive nature makes it ideal for experts who need to explain how computer security works to non-technical staff. Providing a fundamental understanding of the theory behind the key issues impacting cyber security, the book: Covers attacker methods and motivations, exploitation trends, malicious code techniques, and the latest threat vectors Addresses more than 75 key security concepts in a series of concise, well-illustrated summaries designed for most levels of technical understanding Supplies actionable advice for the mitigation of threats Breaks down the code used to write exploits into understandable diagrams This book is not about the latest attack trends or botnets. It’s about the reasons why these problems continue to plague us. By better understanding the logic presented in these pages, readers will be prepared to transition to a career in the growing field of cyber security and enable proactive responses to the threats and attacks on the horizon.

Evidence-Based Software Engineering and Systematic Reviews

Author: Barbara Ann Kitchenham,David Budgen,Pearl Brereton

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482228661

Category: Computers

Page: 399

View: 6991

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In the decade since the idea of adapting the evidence-based paradigm for software engineering was first proposed, it has become a major tool of empirical software engineering. Evidence-Based Software Engineering and Systematic Reviews provides a clear introduction to the use of an evidence-based model for software engineering research and practice. The book explains the roles of primary studies (experiments, surveys, case studies) as elements of an over-arching evidence model, rather than as disjointed elements in the empirical spectrum. Supplying readers with a clear understanding of empirical software engineering best practices, it provides up-to-date guidance on how to conduct secondary studies in software engineering—replacing the existing 2004 and 2007 technical reports. The book is divided into three parts. The first part discusses the nature of evidence and the evidence-based practices centered on a systematic review, both in general and as applying to software engineering. The second part examines the different elements that provide inputs to a systematic review (usually considered as forming a secondary study), especially the main forms of primary empirical study currently used in software engineering. The final part provides practical guidance on how to conduct systematic reviews (the guidelines), drawing together accumulated experiences to guide researchers and students in planning and conducting their own studies. The book includes an extensive glossary and an appendix that provides a catalogue of reviews that may be useful for practice and teaching.

Software Designers in Action

A Human-Centric Look at Design Work

Author: Marian Petre,Andre Van Der Hoek

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466501103

Category: Computers

Page: 452

View: 8250

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Software Designers in Action: A Human-Centric Look at Design Work examines how developers actually perform software design in their day-to-day work. The book offers a comprehensive look at early software design, exploring the work of professional designers from a range of different viewpoints. Divided into four sections, it discusses various theoretical examinations of the nature of software design and particular design problems, critically assesses the processes and practices that designers follow, presents in-depth accounts of key supporting elements of design, and explores the role of human interaction in software design. With highly interdisciplinary contributions that together provide a unique perspective on software development, this book helps readers understand how software design is performed today and encourages the current community of researchers to push the field forward.

Introduction to Combinatorial Testing

Author: D. Richard Kuhn,Raghu N. Kacker,Yu Lei

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466552301

Category: Computers

Page: 341

View: 3696

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Combinatorial testing of software analyzes interactions among variables using a very small number of tests. This advanced approach has demonstrated success in providing strong, low-cost testing in real-world situations. Introduction to Combinatorial Testing presents a complete self-contained tutorial on advanced combinatorial testing methods for real-world software. The book introduces key concepts and procedures of combinatorial testing, explains how to use software tools for generating combinatorial tests, and shows how this approach can be integrated with existing practice. Detailed explanations and examples clarify how and why to use various techniques. Sections on cost and practical considerations describe tradeoffs and limitations that may impact resources or funding. While the authors introduce some of the theory and mathematics of combinatorial methods, readers can use the methods without in-depth knowledge of the underlying mathematics. Accessible to undergraduate students and researchers in computer science and engineering, this book illustrates the practical application of combinatorial methods in software testing. Giving pointers to freely available tools and offering resources on a supplementary website, the book encourages readers to apply these methods in their own testing projects.

Computer Games and Software Engineering

Author: Kendra M. L. Cooper,Walt Scacchi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482226693

Category: Computers

Page: 311

View: 6276

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Computer games represent a significant software application domain for innovative research in software engineering techniques and technologies. Game developers, whether focusing on entertainment-market opportunities or game-based applications in non-entertainment domains, thus share a common interest with software engineers and developers on how to best engineer game software. Featuring contributions from leading experts in software engineering, the book provides a comprehensive introduction to computer game software development that includes its history as well as emerging research on the interaction between these two traditionally distinct fields. An ideal reference for software engineers, developers, and researchers, this book explores game programming and development from a software engineering perspective. It introduces the latest research in computer game software engineering (CGSE) and covers topics such as HALO (Highly Addictive, sociaLly Optimized) software engineering, multi-player outdoor smartphone games, gamifying sports software, and artificial intelligence in games. The book explores the use of games in software engineering education extensively. It also covers game software requirements engineering, game software architecture and design approaches, game software testing and usability assessment, game development frameworks and reusability techniques, and game scalability infrastructure, including support for mobile devices and web-based services.

Software Metrics

A Rigorous and Practical Approach, Third Edition

Author: Norman Fenton,James Bieman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439838232

Category: Computers

Page: 617

View: 5589

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A Framework for Managing, Measuring, and Predicting Attributes of Software Development Products and Processes Reflecting the immense progress in the development and use of software metrics in the past decades, Software Metrics: A Rigorous and Practical Approach, Third Edition provides an up-to-date, accessible, and comprehensive introduction to software metrics. Like its popular predecessors, this third edition discusses important issues, explains essential concepts, and offers new approaches for tackling long-standing problems. New to the Third Edition This edition contains new material relevant to object-oriented design, design patterns, model-driven development, and agile development processes. It includes a new chapter on causal models and Bayesian networks and their application to software engineering. This edition also incorporates recent references to the latest software metrics activities, including research results, industrial case studies, and standards. Suitable for a Range of Readers With numerous examples and exercises, this book continues to serve a wide audience. It can be used as a textbook for a software metrics and quality assurance course or as a useful supplement in any software engineering course. Practitioners will appreciate the important results that have previously only appeared in research-oriented publications. Researchers will welcome the material on new results as well as the extensive bibliography of measurement-related information. The book also gives software managers and developers practical guidelines for selecting metrics and planning their use in a measurement program.

Big Data Analytics

Tools and Technology for Effective Planning

Author: Arun K. Somani,Ganesh Chandra Deka

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1315391244

Category: Computers

Page: 399

View: 3620

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The proposed book will discuss various aspects of big data Analytics. It will deliberate upon the tools, technology, applications, use cases and research directions in the field. Chapters would be contributed by researchers, scientist and practitioners from various reputed universities and organizations for the benefit of readers.

Engineering Modeling Languages

Turning Domain Knowledge into Tools

Author: Benoit Combemale,Robert France,Jean-Marc Jézéquel,Bernhard Rumpe,James Steel,Didier Vojtisek

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 131538793X

Category: Computers

Page: 402

View: 3500

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Written by foremost experts in the field, Engineering Modeling Languages provides end-to-end coverage of the engineering of modeling languages to turn domain knowledge into tools. The book provides a definition of different kinds of modeling languages, their instrumentation with tools such as editors, interpreters and generators, the integration of multiple modeling languages to achieve a system view, and the validation of both models and tools. Industrial case studies, across a range of application domains, are included to attest to the benefits offered by the different techniques. The book also includes a variety of simple worked examples that introduce the techniques to the novice user. The book is structured in two main parts. The first part is organized around a flow that introduces readers to Model Driven Engineering (MDE) concepts and technologies in a pragmatic manner. It starts with definitions of modeling and MDE, and then moves into a deeper discussion of how to express the knowledge of particular domains using modeling languages to ease the development of systems in the domains. The second part of the book presents examples of applications of the model-driven approach to different types of software systems. In addition to illustrating the unification power of models in different software domains, this part demonstrates applicability from different starting points (language, business knowledge, standard, etc.) and focuses on different software engineering activities such as Requirement Engineering, Analysis, Design, Implementation, and V&V. Each chapter concludes with a small set of exercises to help the reader reflect on what was learned or to dig further into the examples. Many examples of models and code snippets are presented throughout the book, and a supplemental website features all of the models and programs (and their associated tooling) discussed in the book.

Monte Carlo Simulation for the Pharmaceutical Industry

Concepts, Algorithms, and Case Studies

Author: Mark Chang

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439835937

Category: Mathematics

Page: 564

View: 2257

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Helping you become a creative, logical thinker and skillful "simulator," Monte Carlo Simulation for the Pharmaceutical Industry: Concepts, Algorithms, and Case Studies provides broad coverage of the entire drug development process, from drug discovery to preclinical and clinical trial aspects to commercialization. It presents the theories and methods needed to carry out computer simulations efficiently, covers both descriptive and pseudocode algorithms that provide the basis for implementation of the simulation methods, and illustrates real-world problems through case studies. The text first emphasizes the importance of analogy and simulation using examples from a variety of areas, before introducing general sampling methods and the different stages of drug development. It then focuses on simulation approaches based on game theory and the Markov decision process, simulations in classical and adaptive trials, and various challenges in clinical trial management and execution. The author goes on to cover prescription drug marketing strategies and brand planning, molecular design and simulation, computational systems biology and biological pathway simulation with Petri nets, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and pharmacodynamic models. The final chapter explores Monte Carlo computing techniques for statistical inference. This book offers a systematic treatment of computer simulation in drug development. It not only deals with the principles and methods of Monte Carlo simulation, but also the applications in drug development, such as statistical trial monitoring, prescription drug marketing, and molecular docking.

Software Development and Professional Practice

Author: John Dooley

Publisher: Apress

ISBN: 1430238011

Category: Computers

Page: 260

View: 6757

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Software Development and Professional Practice reveals how to design and code great software. What factors do you take into account? What makes a good design? What methods and processes are out there for designing software? Is designing small programs different than designing large ones? How can you tell a good design from a bad one? You'll learn the principles of good software design, and how to turn those principles back into great code. Software Development and Professional Practice is also about code construction—how to write great programs and make them work. What, you say? You've already written eight gazillion programs! Of course I know how to write code! Well, in this book you'll re-examine what you already do, and you'll investigate ways to improve. Using the Java language, you'll look deeply into coding standards, debugging, unit testing, modularity, and other characteristics of good programs. You'll also talk about reading code. How do you read code? What makes a program readable? Can good, readable code replace documentation? How much documentation do you really need? This book introduces you to software engineering—the application of engineering principles to the development of software. What are these engineering principles? First, all engineering efforts follow a defined process. So, you'll be spending a bit of time talking about how you run a software development project and the different phases of a project. Secondly, all engineering work has a basis in the application of science and mathematics to real-world problems. And so does software development! You'll therefore take the time to examine how to design and implement programs that solve specific problems. Finally, this book is also about human-computer interaction and user interface design issues. A poor user interface can ruin any desire to actually use a program; in this book, you'll figure out why and how to avoid those errors. Software Development and Professional Practice covers many of the topics described for the ACM Computing Curricula 2001 course C292c Software Development and Professional Practice. It is designed to be both a textbook and a manual for the working professional. What you’ll learn How to design and code great software What methods and processes are available to help you design great software How to apply software engineering principles to your daily coding practice How to tell a good design from a bad one? Understand the characteristics of good programs How to construct professional standard code that you can be proud to show Understand all about coding standards, and apply them to real Java coding Explore debugging, unit testing and modularity All about object-oriented programming (OOP) design principles and great coding How to apply the principles you've learned to specific and real-world coding problems A companion to the ACM Computing Curricular 2001 source C202c Who this book is for Software Development and Professional Practice is designed to be both a textbook and a manual for the working professional programmer, and any student of programming who wants to learn the art of the trade. This book assumes you know some Java, enough to read its examples at least, and that you've already done some programming. Now you want to write great code! This book covers many of the topics described for the ACM Computing Curricula 2001 course C292c Software Development and Professional Practice, and will be a great companion to anyone studying this course. Table of Contents Introduction to Software Development Process Life Cycle Models Project Management Essentials Requirements Software Architecture Design Principles Structured Design Object-Oriented Analysis & Design—An Overview Object-Oriented Analysis & Design—A Play in Several Acts Object-Oriented Design Principles Design Patterns Code Construction Debugging Unit Testing Walkthroughs, Code Reviews and Inspections Wrapping it All Up

From Action Systems to Distributed Systems

The Refinement Approach

Author: Luigia Petre,Emil Sekerinski

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1498701590

Category: Computers

Page: 284

View: 6310

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Formal methods traditionally address the question of transforming software engineering into a mature engineering discipline. This essentially refers to trusting that the software-intensive systems that form our society’s infrastructures are behaving according to their specifications. More recently, formal methods are also used to understand properties and evolution laws of existing complex and adaptive systems—man-made such as smart electrical grids or natural ones such as biological networks. A tribute to Professor Kaisa Sere’s contributions to the field of computer science, From Action Systems to Distributed Systems: The Refinement Approach is the first book to address the impact of refinement through a multitude of formal methods ranging from Action Systems to numerous related approaches in computer science research. It presents a state-of-the-art review on the themes of distributed systems and refinement. A fundamental part of Kaisa Sere’s research consisted of developing Action Systems, a formalism for modeling, analysing, and constructing distributed systems. Within the design of distributed systems, Kaisa Sere’s main research focus was on refinement-based approaches to the construction of systems ranging from pure software to hardware and digital circuits. Presenting scientific contributions from renowned researchers around the world, this edited book consists of five sections: Modeling, Analysis, Proof, Refinement, and Applications. Each chapter has been thoroughly reviewed by experts in the field. The book covers both traditional aspects in formal methods research, as well as current and innovative research directions. It describes the transition from the strong theory of refinement to a methodology that can be applied in practice, with tool support. Examining industrial applications of the methods discussed, this book is a suitable resource for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners interested in using formal methods to develop distributed systems of quality.

The R Book

Author: Michael J. Crawley

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118448960

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1080

View: 7989

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Hugely successful and popular text presenting an extensive and comprehensive guide for all R users The R language is recognized as one of the most powerful and flexible statistical software packages, enabling users to apply many statistical techniques that would be impossible without such software to help implement such large data sets. R has become an essential tool for understanding and carrying out research. This edition: Features full colour text and extensive graphics throughout. Introduces a clear structure with numbered section headings to help readers locate information more efficiently. Looks at the evolution of R over the past five years. Features a new chapter on Bayesian Analysis and Meta-Analysis. Presents a fully revised and updated bibliography and reference section. Is supported by an accompanying website allowing examples from the text to be run by the user. Praise for the first edition: ‘…if you are an R user or wannabe R user, this text is the one that should be on your shelf. The breadth of topics covered is unsurpassed when it comes to texts on data analysis in R.’ (The American Statistician, August 2008) ‘The High-level software language of R is setting standards in quantitative analysis. And now anybody can get to grips with it thanks to The R Book…’ (Professional Pensions, July 2007)

Computer Science Handbook, Second Edition

Author: Allen B. Tucker

Publisher: Chapman and Hall/CRC

ISBN: 9781584883609

Category: Computers

Page: 2752

View: 8823

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When you think about how far and fast computer science has progressed in recent years, it's not hard to conclude that a seven-year old handbook may fall a little short of the kind of reference today's computer scientists, software engineers, and IT professionals need. With a broadened scope, more emphasis on applied computing, and more than 70 chapters either new or significantly revised, the Computer Science Handbook, Second Edition is exactly the kind of reference you need. This rich collection of theory and practice fully characterizes the current state of the field and conveys the modern spirit, accomplishments, and direction of computer science. Highlights of the Second Edition: Coverage that reaches across all 11 subject areas of the discipline as defined in Computing Curricula 2001, now the standard taxonomy More than 70 chapters revised or replaced Emphasis on a more practical/applied approach to IT topics such as information management, net-centric computing, and human computer interaction More than 150 contributing authors--all recognized experts in their respective specialties New chapters on: cryptography computational chemistry computational astrophysics human-centered software development cognitive modeling transaction processing data compression scripting languages event-driven programming software architecture

Foundations of Semantic Web Technologies

Author: Pascal Hitzler,Markus Krotzsch,Sebastian Rudolph

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420090512

Category: Computers

Page: 456

View: 606

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With more substantial funding from research organizations and industry, numerous large-scale applications, and recently developed technologies, the Semantic Web is quickly emerging as a well-recognized and important area of computer science. While Semantic Web technologies are still rapidly evolving, Foundations of Semantic Web Technologies focuses on the established foundations in this area that have become relatively stable over time. It thoroughly covers basic introductions and intuitions, technical details, and formal foundations. The book concentrates on Semantic Web technologies standardized by the World Wide Web Consortium: RDF and SPARQL enable data exchange and querying, RDFS and OWL provide expressive ontology modeling, and RIF supports rule-based modeling. The text also describes methods for specifying, querying, and reasoning with ontological information. In addition, it explores topics that are clearly beyond foundations, such as tools, applications, and engineering aspects. Written by highly respected researchers with a deep understanding of the material, this text centers on the formal specifications of the subject and supplies many pointers that are useful for employing Semantic Web technologies in practice. The book has an accompanying website with supplemental information.

Making Hard Decisions with DecisionTools

Author: Robert T. Clemen,Terence Reilly

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1285708342

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 848

View: 6076

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MAKING HARD DECISIONS WITH DECISIONTOOLS is a new edition of Bob Clemen's best-selling title, MAKING HARD DECISIONS. This straightforward book teaches the fundamental ideas of decision analysis, without an overly technical explanation of the mathematics used in decision analysis. This new version incorporates and implements the powerful DecisionTools software by Palisade Corporation, the world's leading toolkit for risk and decision analysis. At the end of each chapter, topics are illustrated with step-by-step instructions for DecisionTools. This new version makes the text more useful and relevant to students in business and engineering. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Ubiquitous Computing Fundamentals

Author: John Krumm

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420093612

Category: Mathematics

Page: 328

View: 6357

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"...a must-read text that provides a historical lens to see how ubicomp has matured into a multidisciplinary endeavor. It will be an essential reference to researchers and those who want to learn more about this evolving field." -From the Foreword, Professor Gregory D. Abowd, Georgia Institute of Technology First introduced two decades ago, the term ubiquitous computing is now part of the common vernacular. Ubicomp, as it is commonly called, has grown not just quickly but broadly so as to encompass a wealth of concepts and technology that serves any number of purposes across all of human endeavor. While such growth is positive, the newest generation of ubicomp practitioners and researchers, isolated to specific tasks, are in danger of losing their sense of history and the broader perspective that has been so essential to the field’s creativity and brilliance. Under the guidance of John Krumm, an original ubicomp pioneer, Ubiquitous Computing Fundamentals brings together eleven ubiquitous computing trailblazers who each report on his or her area of expertise. Starting with a historical introduction, the book moves on to summarize a number of self-contained topics. Taking a decidedly human perspective, the book includes discussion on how to observe people in their natural environments and evaluate the critical points where ubiquitous computing technologies can improve their lives. Among a range of topics this book examines: How to build an infrastructure that supports ubiquitous computing applications Privacy protection in systems that connect personal devices and personal information Moving from the graphical to the ubiquitous computing user interface Techniques that are revolutionizing the way we determine a person’s location and understand other sensor measurements While we needn’t become expert in every sub-discipline of ubicomp, it is necessary that we appreciate all the perspectives that make up the field and understand how our work can influence and be influenced by those perspectives. This is important, if we are to encourage future generations to be as successfully innovative as the field’s originators.