INVERSE METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC SOUNDING THEORY AND PRACTICE SERIES ON ATMOSPHERIC OCEANIC AND PLANETARY PHYSICS
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Remote sounding of the atmosphere has proved to be a fruitful method of obtaining global information about the atmospheres of the earth and other planets. This book treats comprehensively the inverse problem of remote sounding, and discusses a wide range of retrieval methods for extracting atmospheric parameters of interest from the quantities (thermal emission, for example) that can be measured remotely. Inverse theory is treated in depth from an estimation-theory point of view, but practical questions are also emphasized, such as designing observing systems to obtain the maximum quantity of information, efficient numerical implementation of algorithms for processing large quantities of data, error analysis and approaches to the validation of the resulting retrievals. The book is targeted at graduate students as well as scientists. Contents:Information AspectsError Analysis and CharacterisationOptimal Linear Inverse MethodsOptimal Methods for Nonlinear Inverse ProblemsApproximations, Short Cuts and Ad-hoc MethodsThe Kalman FilterGlobal Data AssimilationNumerical Methods for Forward Models and JacobiansConstruction and Use of Prior ConstraintsDesigning an Observing SystemTesting and Validating an Observing System Readership: Physicists, applied mathematicians and interdisciplinary scientists. keywords:Atmosphere;Satellites;Sounding;Retrievals;Remote Sensing;Radiation;Radiative Transfer;Infrared;Earth “In this book, the author provides a well-founded background and solution of the inverse problem.” Zentralblatt MATH
Homer speaks of lightning bolts after which ‘a grim reek of sulphur bursts forth’ and the air was ‘?lled with reeking brimstone’. (Homer 3000 BC). The odour was not actually the smell of sulphur dioxide associated with burning sulphur, but rather was the ?rst recorded detection of the presence of another strong odour, that of ozone (O ) in Earth’s atmosphere. These molecules were formed by the passage of 3 lightning through the air, created by splitting the abundant molecular oxygen (O ) 2 molecules into two, followed by the addition of each of the free O atoms to another O to form the triatomic product. In fact, most of the ozone molecules present 2 in the atmosphere at any time have been made by this same two-step splitti- plus-combination process, although the initiating cause usually begins with very energetic solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation rather than lightning. Many thousands of years later, the modern history of ozone began with its synthesis in the laboratory of H. F. Schonbein in 1840 (Nolte 1999), although the positive con?rmation of its three-oxygen atom chemical formula came along sometime later. Scienti?c interest in high-altitude stratospheric ozone dates back to 1881 when Hartley measured the spectrum of ozone in the laboratory and found that its ability to absorb UV light extended only to 293nm at the long wavelength end (Hartley 1881a).
Light Absorption and Scattering by Particles in the Atmosphere
Author: Alexander Kokhanovsky
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This new text offers experienced students a comprehensive review of available techniques for the remote sensing of aerosols. These small particles influence both atmospheric visibility and the thermodynamics of the atmosphere. They are also of great importance in any consideration of climate change problems. Aerosols may also be responsible for the loss of harvests, human health problems and ecological disasters. Thus, this detailed study of aerosol properties on a global scale could not be more timely.
Atmospheric water plays a key role in climate. Water vapour is the most important greenhouse gas and its condensed forms exert a profound influence on both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation. Unfortunately, accurate, height-resolved global-scale measurements of atmospheric humidity are difficult to obtain. The change in concentration of five orders of magnitude form the ground to the stratosphere means there is no standard instrument that will measure everywhere. This has led to different measuring techniques, all with strengths and weaknesses. This book assesses all presently available techniques that are used in monitoring networks. Special weight is given to presenting the different technical concepts, the accuracy of different sensor types, addresses calibration issues and retrieval aspects.