Life's Solution

Inevitable Humans in a Lonely Universe

Author: Simon Conway Morris

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521603256

Category: Science

Page: 488

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Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

Humans in Outer Space - Interdisciplinary Perspectives

Author: Ulrike Landfester,Nina-Louisa Remuss,Kai-Uwe Schrogl,Jean-Claude Worms

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3709102804

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 333

View: 5751

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Following the first comprehensive transdisciplinary dialogue on humans in outer space which resulted in "Humans in Outer Space - Interdisciplinary Odysseys", the European Science Foundation (ESF), the European Space Agency (ESA), and the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI) have continued and deepened this transdisciplinary dialogue, which can now be found in Humans in Outer Space - Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Going further than regarding humans as better-than-robot tools for exploration, it investigates the human quest for odysseys beyond Earth's atmosphere and reflects on arising issues related to Europe's role among the States conducting human exploration. It provides perspectives related to governance, management of space exploration, space settlements, the role of astronauts in the future as well as related to the encounter of extraterrestrial life.

Theorien der Kommunikations- und Medienwissenschaft

Grundlegende Diskussionen, Forschungsfelder und Theorieentwicklungen

Author: Carsten Winter,Andreas Hepp,Friedrich Krotz

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3531907786

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 457

View: 6553

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In den letzten Jahren hat sich die Auseinandersetzung mit theoretischen Ansätzen innerhalb der Kommunikations- und Medienwissenschaft erheblich intensiviert. Im Fokus steht dabei einerseits die Frage, was die grundlegenden theoretischen Ansätze der Kommunikations- und Medienwissenschaft sind. Andererseits geht es um eine Diskussion der originären Theorieentwicklungen der Kommunikations- und Medienwissenschaft in ihren unterschiedlichen Forschungsfeldern. Das Werk zielt darauf, einen Überblick über diese aktuelle Theoriediskussion zu geben und zukünftige Perspektiven aufzuzeigen.

Richard Dawkins

How a scientist changed the way we think

Author: Alan Grafen,Mark Ridley

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191500771

Category: Science

Page: 304

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This sparkling collection explores the impact of Richard Dawkins as scientist, rationalist, and one of the most important thinkers alive today. Specially commissioned pieces by leading figures in science, philosophy, literature, and the media, such as Daniel C. Dennett, Matt Ridley, Steven Pinker, Philip Pullman, and the Bishop of Oxford, highlight the breadth and range of Dawkins' influence on modern science and culture, from the gene's eye view of evolution to his energetic engagement in public debates on science, rationalism, and religion. The volume includes personal reminiscences and critical debate as well as accessible discussions of science - it provides a stimulating tribute to a remarkable intellectual.

Ethik des Lebens

Grundlagen und neue Herausforderungen

Author: Eberhard Schockenhoff

Publisher: Verlag Herder GmbH

ISBN: 3451827581

Category: Religion

Page: 656

View: 4460

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In der modernen Gesellschaft ist menschliches Leben an seinen Grenzen, in Geburt, Krankheit und Tod, in einem Maß verfügbar geworden, das früher undenkbar schien. Das Standardwerk zur Ethik des Lebens bietet in einer durchgesehenen und aktualisierten zweiten Auflage Klärungen zu Grundsatzfragen und Erörterungen aktueller Einzelfragen. Dabei sind neueste Entwicklungen, etwa im Zusammenhang mit Neuregelungen bei der Organspende, berücksichtigt.

Communication and Engagement with Science and Technology

Issues and Dilemmas - A Reader in Science Communication

Author: John K. Gilbert,Susan M. Stocklmayer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136662685

Category: Education

Page: 352

View: 5919

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Science communication seeks to engage individuals and groups with evidence-based information about the nature, outcomes, and social consequences of science and technology. This text provides an overview of this burgeoning field ─ the issues with which it deals, important influences that affect it, the challenges that it faces. It introduces readers to the research-based literature about science communication and shows how it relates to actual or potential practice. A "Further Exploration" section provides suggestions for activities that readers might do to explore the issues raised. Organized around five themes, each chapter addresses a different aspect of science communication: • Models of science communication – theory into practice • Challenges in communicating science • Major themes in science communication • Informal learning • Communication of contemporary issues in science and society Relevant for all those interested in and concerned about current issues and developments in science communication, this volume is an ideal text for courses and a must-have resource for faculty, students, and professionals in this field.

Science, Religion, and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

Author: David Wilkinson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019166961X

Category: Science

Page: 240

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If the discovery of life elsewhere in the universe is just around the corner, what would be the consequences for religion? Would it represent another major conflict between science and religion, even leading to the death of faith? Some would suggest that the discovery of any suggestion of extraterrestrial life would have a greater impact than even the Copernican and Darwinian revolutions. It is now over 50 years since the first modern scientific papers were published on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). Yet the religious implications of this search and possible discovery have never been systematically addressed in the scientific or theological arena. SETI is now entering its most important era of scientific development. New observation techniques are leading to the discovery of extra-solar planets daily, and the Kepler mission has already collected over 1000 planetary candidates. This deluge of data is transforming the scientific and popular view of the existence of extraterrestrial intelligence. Earth-like planets outside of our solar system can now be identified and searched for signs of life. Now is a crucial time to assess the scientific and theological questions behind this search. This book sets out the scientific arguments undergirding SETI, with particular attention to the uncertainties in arguments and the strength of the data already assembled. It assesses not only the discovery of planets but other areas such as the Fermi paradox, the origin and evolution of intelligent life, and current SETI strategies. In all of this it reflects on how these questions are shaped by history and pop culture and their relationship with religion, especially Christian theology. It is argued that theologians need to take seriously SETI and to examine some central doctrines such as creation, incarnation, revelation, and salvation in the light of the possibility of extraterrestrial life.

On the Origin of Autonomy

A New Look at the Major Transitions in Evolution

Author: Bernd Rosslenbroich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 331904141X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 297

View: 7701

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This volume describes features of autonomy and integrates them into the recent discussion of factors in evolution. In recent years ideas about major transitions in evolution are undergoing a revolutionary change. They include questions about the origin of evolutionary innovation, their genetic and epigenetic background, the role of the phenotype and of changes in ontogenetic pathways. In the present book, it is argued that it is likewise necessary to question the properties of these innovations and what was qualitatively generated during the macroevolutionary transitions. The author states that a recurring central aspect of macroevolutionary innovations is an increase in individual organismal autonomy whereby it is emancipated from the environment with changes in its capacity for flexibility, self-regulation and self-control of behavior. The first chapters define the concept of autonomy and examine its history and its epistemological context. Later chapters demonstrate how changes in autonomy took place during the major evolutionary transitions and investigate the generation of organs and physiological systems. They synthesize material from various disciplines including zoology, comparative physiology, morphology, molecular biology, neurobiology and ethology. It is argued that the concept is also relevant for understanding the relation of the biological evolution of man to his cultural abilities. Finally the relation of autonomy to adaptation, niche construction, phenotypic plasticity and other factors and patterns in evolution is discussed. The text has a clear perspective from the context of systems biology, arguing that the generation of biological autonomy must be interpreted within an integrative systems approach.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Plant Behaviour and Intelligence

Author: Anthony Trewavas

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191028916

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 5155

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This book provides a convincing argument for the view that whole cells and whole plants growing in competitive wild conditions show aspects of plant behaviour that can be accurately described as 'intelligent'. Trewavas argues that behaviour, like intelligence, must be assessed within the constraints of the anatomical and physiological framework of the organism in question. The fact that plants do not have centralized nervous systems for example, does not exclude intelligent behaviour. Outside the human dimension, culture is thought largely absent and fitness is the biological property of value. Thus, solving environmental problems that threaten to reduce fitness is another way of viewing intelligent behaviour and has a similar meaning to adaptively variable behaviour. The capacity to solve these problems might be considered to vary in different organisms, but variation does not mean absence. By extending these ideas into a book that allows a critical and amplified discussion, the author hopes to raise an awareness of the concept of purposive behaviour in plants.

Scientific Approaches to the Philosophy of Religion

Author: Y. Nagasawa

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137026014

Category: Philosophy

Page: 280

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Tackling central problems in philosophy of religion by referring to relevant theories and findings in cognitive science, anthropology, developmental psychology, decision theory, biology, physics, cosmology, the contributors address a range of topics, including divine attributes; God, creation and evolution; God and the universe; religious beliefs.

The Moral Arc

How Science Makes Us Better People

Author: Michael Shermer

Publisher: Henry Holt and Company

ISBN: 0805096930

Category: Science

Page: 560

View: 6351

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Bestselling author Michael Shermer's exploration of science and morality that demonstrates how the scientific way of thinking has made people, and society as a whole, more moral From Galileo and Newton to Thomas Hobbes and Martin Luther King, Jr., thinkers throughout history have consciously employed scientific techniques to better understand the non-physical world. The Age of Reason and the Enlightenment led theorists to apply scientific reasoning to the non-scientific disciplines of politics, economics, and moral philosophy. Instead of relying on the woodcuts of dissected bodies in old medical texts, physicians opened bodies themselves to see what was there; instead of divining truth through the authority of an ancient holy book or philosophical treatise, people began to explore the book of nature for themselves through travel and exploration; instead of the supernatural belief in the divine right of kings, people employed a natural belief in the right of democracy. In The Moral Arc, Shermer will explain how abstract reasoning, rationality, empiricism, skepticism--scientific ways of thinking--have profoundly changed the way we perceive morality and, indeed, move us ever closer to a more just world.

The Oxford Handbook of Atheism

Author: Stephen Bullivant,Michael Ruse

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191667404

Category: Religion

Page: 784

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Recent books by, among others, Sam Harris, Richard Dawkins, and Christopher Hitchens have thrust atheism firmly into the popular, media, and academic spotlight. This so-called New Atheism is arguably the most striking development in western socio-religious culture of the past decade or more. As such, it has spurred fertile (and often heated) discussions both within, and between, a diverse range of disciplines. Yet atheism, and the New Atheism, are by no means co-extensive. Interesting though it indeed is, the New Atheism is a single, historically and culturally specific manifestation of positive atheism (the that there is/are no God/s), which is itself but one form of a far deeper, broader, and more significant global phenomenon. The Oxford Handbook of Atheism is a pioneering edited volume, exploring atheism—understood in the broad sense of 'an absence of belief in the existence of a God or gods'—in all the richness and diversity of its historical and contemporary expressions. Bringing together an international team of established and emerging scholars, it probes the varied manifestations and implications of unbelief from an array of disciplinary perspectives (philosophy, history, sociology, anthropology, demography, psychology, natural sciences, gender and sexuality studies, literary criticism, film studies, musicology) and in a range of global contexts (Western Europe, North America, post-communist Europe, the Islamic world, Japan, India). Both surveying and synthesizing previous work, and presenting the major fruits of innovative recent research, the handbook is set to be a landmark text for the study of atheism.

Leben 3.0

Mensch sein im Zeitalter Künstlicher Intelligenz

Author: Max Tegmark

Publisher: Ullstein Buchverlage

ISBN: 3843716706

Category: Social Science

Page: 528

View: 7169

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Die Nobelpreis-Schmiede Massachusetts Institute of Technology ist der bedeutendste technologische Think Tank der USA. Dort arbeitet Professor Max Tegmark mit den weltweit führenden Entwicklern künstlicher Intelligenz zusammen, die ihm exklusive Einblicke in ihre Labors gewähren. Die Erkenntnisse, die er daraus zieht, sind atemberaubend und zutiefst verstörend zugleich. Neigt sich die Ära der Menschen dem Ende zu? Der Physikprofessor Max Tegmark zeigt anhand der neusten Forschung, was die Menschheit erwartet. Hier eine Auswahl möglicher Szenarien: - Eroberer: Künstliche Intelligenz übernimmt die Macht und entledigt sich der Menschheit mit Methoden, die wir noch nicht einmal verstehen. - Der versklavte Gott: Die Menschen bemächtigen sich einer superintelligenten künstlichen Intelligenz und nutzen sie, um Hochtechnologien herzustellen. - Umkehr: Der technologische Fortschritt wird radikal unterbunden und wir kehren zu einer prä-technologischen Gesellschaft im Stil der Amish zurück. - Selbstzerstörung: Superintelligenz wird nicht erreicht, weil sich die Menschheit vorher nuklear oder anders selbst vernichtet. - Egalitäres Utopia: Es gibt weder Superintelligenz noch Besitz, Menschen und kybernetische Organismen existieren friedlich nebeneinander. Max Tegmark bietet kluge und fundierte Zukunftsszenarien basierend auf seinen exklusiven Einblicken in die aktuelle Forschung zur künstlichen Intelligenz.

Animal Evolution

Genomes, Fossils, and Trees

Author: Maximilian J. Telford,D. Timothy J. Littlewood

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199549427

Category: Science

Page: 245

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Describing and understanding the evolution of the diversity of bodyplans is a major goal of evolutionary biology. Taking a modern, integrated approach to this question, a group of leading researchers describe how modern techniques and disciplines have been combined, resulting in a dramatic renaissance in the study of animal evolution.

Linnaeus and homo religiosus

biological roots of religious awareness and human identity ; proceedings from a conference at the Faculty of Theology, Uppsala University, 30th of May - 2nd of June 2007, in connection with the celebrations of the birth of Carl von Linnaeus

Author: Carl Reinhold Bråkenhielm

Publisher: Uppsala Universitet

ISBN: 9789155476410

Category: Religion

Page: 231

View: 3769

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"Are we by nature religious and how should we then understand Homo Modernus (the modern man), who seems to lack religious awareness? What are the biological roots of religion and the genetic basis for religious experience? How can we relate contemporary biological and theological theories of human nature to one another? These questions were the background of a conference arranged by the Faculty of Theology at Uppsala University on the 30th of May to the 2nd of June 2007. The conference was a part of the celebration of the 300th anniversary of the birth of Carl von Linné. The theme of the conference was "Linneaus and Homo Religiosus - Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on the Biological Roots of Religious Awareness and Human Identity". This volume contains most of the lectures and papers from this conference."--Publisher's description.

Eine kurze Geschichte von fast allem

Author: Bill Bryson

Publisher: Goldmann Verlag

ISBN: 3641079241

Category: Social Science

Page: 688

View: 7255

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Wie groß ist eigentlich das Universum? Was wiegt unsere Erde? Und wie ist das überhaupt möglich – die Erde zu wiegen? In seinem großen Buch nimmt uns Bestsellerautor Bill Bryson mit auf eine atemberaubende Reise durch Raum und Zeit: Er erklärt uns den Himmel und die Erde, die Sterne und die Meere, und nicht zuletzt die Entstehungsgeschichte des Menschen. »Eine kurze Geschichte von fast allem« ist ein ebenso fundierter und lehrreicher wie unterhaltsamer und amüsanter Ausflug in die Naturwissenschaften, mit dem Bill Bryson das scheinbar Unmögliche vollbracht hat: das Wissen von der Welt in dreißig Kapitel zu packen, die auch für den normalen Leser ohne Vorkenntnisse verständlich sind. Das ideale Buch für alle, die unser Universum und unsere Geschichte endlich verstehen möchten – und dabei auch noch Spaß haben wollen!

Laudato si

Die Umwelt-Enzyklika des Papstes

Author: Franziskus (Papst),

Publisher: Verlag Herder GmbH

ISBN: 345180736X

Category: Religion

Page: 288

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Mit großer Spannung wurde sie erwartet, auch von Nicht-Katholiken: Die Umwelt-Enzyklika von Papst Franziskus nimmt die heute entscheidenden Themen in den Blick; es geht um die geht um soziale, ökologische und politische Zusammenhänge. Wohl selten war ein päpstliches Schreiben so aktuell und brisant und vor allem relevant für alle Gesellschaftsschichten und Menschen weltweit. Mit "Laudato si" beweist Franziskus, dass die Kirche nach wie vor eine unverzichtbare Stimme im Diskurs zur Gestaltung der modernen Welt ist. Wer verstehen will, wie Papst und Kirche die großen Herausforderungen unserer Zeit bestehen wollen, kommt an diesem Werk nicht vorbei. Ein Muss für jeden, der an den drängenden Fragen unserer Zeit interessiert ist.


Ein wenig Leben

Roman

Author: Hanya Yanagihara

Publisher: Hanser Berlin

ISBN: 3446255583

Category: Fiction

Page: 960

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"Ein wenig Leben" handelt von der lebenslangen Freundschaft zwischen vier Männern in New York, die sich am College kennengelernt haben. Jude St. Francis, brillant und enigmatisch, ist die charismatische Figur im Zentrum der Gruppe – ein aufopfernd liebender und zugleich innerlich zerbrochener Mensch. Immer tiefer werden die Freunde in Judes dunkle, schmerzhafte Welt hineingesogen, deren Ungeheuer nach und nach hervortreten. "Ein wenig Leben" ist ein rauschhaftes, mit kaum fasslicher Dringlichkeit erzähltes Epos über Trauma, menschliche Güte und Freundschaft als wahre Liebe. Es begibt sich an die dunkelsten Orte, an die Literatur sich wagen kann, und bricht dabei immer wieder zum hellen Licht durch.