Mantle Plumes and Their Effects

Author: Mainak Choudhuri,Michal Nemčok

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319442392

Category: Science

Page: 137

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This book presents a brief synopsis of the current academic understanding of the plume hypothesis, its surface manifestations and its shortcomings. It also describes methods for estimating the uplift history of a region due to plume activity. It discusses different models for the elastic properties of the lithosphere and their estimation as a background for plume emplacement, and introduces the plume hypothesis, describing the major plume types and their effect on the lithosphere. Two chapters are dedicated to the dynamic and permanent topography produced by an impinging plume head below the lithosphere and its estimation. It also presents the historical background of the plume hypothesis, its criticisms and alternatives.

A Systems Description of Flow Through Porous Media

Author: Jan Dirk Jansen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319002600

Category: Science

Page: 119

View: 9718

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This text forms part of material taught during a course in advanced reservoir simulation at Delft University of Technology over the past 10 years. The contents have also been presented at various short courses for industrial and academic researchers interested in background knowledge needed to perform research in the area of closed-loop reservoir management, also known as smart fields, related to e.g. model-based production optimization, data assimilation (or history matching), model reduction, or upscaling techniques. Each of these topics has connections to system-theoretical concepts. The introductory part of the course, i.e. the systems description of flow through porous media, forms the topic of this brief monograph. The main objective is to present the classic reservoir simulation equations in a notation that facilitates the use of concepts from the systems-and-control literature. Although the theory is limited to the relatively simple situation of horizontal two-phase (oil-water) flow, it covers several typical aspects of porous-media flow. The first chapter gives a brief review of the basic equations to represent single-phase and two-phase flow. It discusses the governing partial-differential equations, their physical interpretation, spatial discretization with finite differences, and the treatment of wells. It contains well-known theory and is primarily meant to form a basis for the next chapter where the equations will be reformulated in terms of systems-and-control notation. The second chapter develops representations in state-space notation of the porous-media flow equations. The systematic use of matrix partitioning to describe the different types of inputs leads to a description in terms of nonlinear ordinary-differential and algebraic equations with (state-dependent) system, input, output and direct-throughput matrices. Other topics include generalized state-space representations, linearization, elimination of prescribed pressures, the tracing of stream lines, lift tables, computational aspects, and the derivation of an energy balance for porous-media flow. The third chapter first treats the analytical solution of linear systems of ordinary differential equations for single-phase flow. Next it moves on to the numerical solution of the two-phase flow equations, covering various aspects like implicit, explicit or mixed (IMPES) time discretizations and associated stability issues, Newton-Raphson iteration, streamline simulation, automatic time-stepping, and other computational aspects. The chapter concludes with simple numerical examples to illustrate these and other aspects such as mobility effects, well-constraint switching, time-stepping statistics, and system-energy accounting. The contents of this brief should be of value to students and researchers interested in the application of systems-and-control concepts to oil and gas reservoir simulation and other applications of subsurface flow simulation such as CO2 storage, geothermal energy, or groundwater remediation.

The Paleogene and Neogene of Western Iberia (Portugal)

A Cenozoic record in the European Atlantic domain

Author: João Pais

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642224010

Category: Science

Page: 158

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This volume includes a general description of the Portuguese Cenozoic basins in the Iberian tectonic context. The main stratigraphic units, including sedimentological, stratigraphical and palaeontological data, are characterized. Correlations between different sectors are presented as well as general paleogeographical evolution maps. The volume includes a general bibliography concerning the Cenozoic of Portugal.

Tectonic Inheritance in Continental Rifts and Passive Margins

Author: Achyuta Ayan Misra,Soumyajit Mukherjee

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319205765

Category: Science

Page: 88

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This work reviews the mechanism of rifting with a focus on pre-existing tectonic weaknesses in pre-rift and/or basement rocks, i.e., on tectonic inheritance. The passive margins that are studied in this book are the Norwegian Continental Shelf, the Eastern North America and the East and West Indian Continental Margins. The continental rifts that have been analysed are the East African Rift System, the Brazilian Continental Rift Systems and the European Cenozoic Rift System. It states how rifts and passive margins serve as valuable locations for hydrocarbon exploration. Tectonic inheritance/heritage examines the influence of pre-existing/pre-rift elements on the geometry, genesis and propagation of rift-related faults. Such elements include anisotropies in the shallow crustal levels, as well as the rheology of the lithosphere. Inheritance greatly influences the architecture of rifted passive margins including the attitude of faults and geometry of horsts, (half-) grabens, transfer zones etc. Inheritance is also a determining factor in the width of rifts and rift shoulder topography.

Imaging Heat and Mass Transfer Processes

Visualization and Analysis

Author: Pradipta K. Panigrahi,muralidhar krishnamurthy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461447917

Category: Science

Page: 133

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Imaging Heat and Mass Transfer Processes: Visualization and Analysis applies Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques to complex heat and mass transfer processes. Several applications are considered where thermal and concentration fields play a central role. These include vortex shedding and suppression from stationary and oscillating bluff bodies such as cylinders, convection around crystals growing from solution, and buoyant jets. Many of these processes are unsteady and three dimensional. The interpretation and analysis of images recorded are discussed in the text.

The Asteroid Impact Connection of Planetary Evolution

With Special Reference to Large Precambrian and Australian impacts

Author: Andrew Y. Glikson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940076328X

Category: Science

Page: 149

View: 1479

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When in 1981 Louis and Walter Alvarez, the father and son team, unearthed a tell-tale Iridium-rich sedimentary horizon at the 65 million years-old Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at Gubbio, Italy, their find heralded a paradigm shift in the study of terrestrial evolution. Since the 1980s the discovery and study of asteroid impact ejecta in the oldest well-preserved terrains of Western Australia and South Africa, by Don Lowe, Gary Byerly, Bruce Simonson, Scott Hassler, the author and others, and the documentation of new exposed and buried impact structures in several continents, have led to a resurgence of the idea of the catastrophism theory of Cuvier, previously largely supplanted by the uniformitarian theory of Hutton and Lyell. Several mass extinction of species events are known to have occurred in temporal proximity to large asteroid impacts, global volcanic eruptions and continental splitting. Likely links are observed between asteroid clusters and the 580 Ma acritarch radiation, end-Devonian extinction, end-Triassic extinction and end-Jurassic extinction. New discoveries of ~3.5 – 3.2 Ga-old impact fallout units in South Africa have led Don Lowe and Gary Byerly to propose a protracted prolongation of the Late Heavy Bombardment (~3.95-3.85 Ga) in the Earth-Moon system. Given the difficulty in identifying asteroid impact ejecta units and buried impact structures, it is likely new discoveries of impact signatures are in store, which would further profoundly alter models of terrestrial evolution. .

Enceladus and the Icy Moons of Saturn

Author: Paul M. Schenk,Roger N. Clark,Carly J. A. Howett,Anne J. Verbiscer,J. Hunter Waite

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 0816537070

Category: Science

Page: 536

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With active geysers coating its surface with dazzlingly bright ice crystals, Saturn’s large moon Enceladus is one of the most enigmatic worlds in our solar system. Underlying this activity are numerous further discoveries by the Cassini spacecraft, tantalizing us with evidence that Enceladus harbors a subsurface ocean of liquid water. Enceladus is thus newly realized as a forefront candidate among potentially habitable ocean worlds in our own solar system, although it is only one of a family of icy moons orbiting the giant ringed planet, each with its own story. As a new volume in the Space Science Series, Enceladus and the Icy Moons of Saturn brings together nearly eighty of the world’s top experts writing more than twenty chapters to set the foundation for what we currently understand, while building the framework for the highest-priority questions to be addressed through ongoing spacecraft exploration. Topics include the physics and processes driving the geologic and geophysical phenomena of icy worlds, including, but not limited to, ring-moon interactions, interior melting due to tidal heating, ejection and reaccretion of vapor and particulates, ice tectonics, and cryovolcanism. By contextualizing each topic within the profusion of puzzles beckoning from among Saturn’s many dozen moons, Enceladus and the Icy Moons of Saturn synthesizes planetary processes on a broad scale to inform and propel both seasoned researchers and students toward achieving new advances in the coming decade and beyond.

Climate, Fire and Human Evolution

The Deep Time Dimensions of the Anthropocene

Author: Andrew Y. Glikson,Colin Groves

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331922512X

Category: Science

Page: 227

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The book outlines principal milestones in the evolution of the atmosphere, oceans and biosphere during the last 4 million years in relation with the evolution from primates to the genus Homo – which uniquely mastered the ignition and transfer of fire. The advent of land plants since about 420 million years ago ensued in flammable carbon-rich biosphere interfaced with an oxygen-rich atmosphere. Born on a flammable Earth surface, under increasingly unstable climates descending from the warmer Pliocene into the deepest ice ages of the Pleistocene, human survival depended on both—biological adaptations and cultural evolution, mastering fire as a necessity. This allowed the genus to increase entropy in nature by orders of magnitude. Gathered around camp fires during long nights for hundreds of thousandth of years, captivated by the flickering life-like dance of the flames, humans developed imagination, insights, cravings, fears, premonitions of death and thereby aspiration for immortality, omniscience, omnipotence and the concept of god. Inherent in pantheism was the reverence of the Earth, its rocks and its living creatures, contrasted by the subsequent rise of monotheistic sky-god creeds which regard Earth as but a corridor to heaven. Once the climate stabilized in the early Holocene, since about ~7000 years-ago production of excess food by Neolithic civilization along the Great River Valleys has allowed human imagination and dreams to express themselves through the construction of monuments to immortality. Further to burning large part of the forests, the discovery of combustion and exhumation of carbon from the Earth’s hundreds of millions of years-old fossil biospheres set the stage for an anthropogenic oxidation event, affecting an abrupt shift in state of the atmosphere-ocean-cryosphere system. The consequent ongoing extinction equals the past five great mass extinctions of species—constituting a geological event horizon in the history of planet Earth.

A Photographic Atlas of Flood Basalt Volcanism

Author: Hetu Sheth

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319677055

Category: Science

Page: 363

View: 1500

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This unique book presents hundreds of spectacular photographs of large-scale to small-scale field geological features of flood basalt volcanism from around the world. Major flood basalt provinces covered in this book include the British Palaeogene, Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, Columbia River, Deccan, East Greenland, Emeishan, Ethiopian, Ferrar-Karoo-Tasmania, Iceland, Indo-Madagascar, Paraná, Siberian, West Greenland, and others. Intermediate- to small-sized flood basalts (such as Saudi Arabia and South Caucasus) are also included. Different chapters of the book illustrate varied features of flood basalts, including landscapes, lava flow morphology and stacking, structures formed during lava flow transport, inflation and degassing, structures produced during lava solidification, subaqueous volcanism and volcanosedimentary associations, explosive volcanism, intrusions, igneous processes and magmatic diversity, tectonic deformation, secondary mineralization, and weathering and erosion. This book will be valuable for a large audience: specialists studying flood basalt volcanology, petrology, geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics, and environmental impact and mass extinction links; nonspecialists who want to know more about flood basalts; field geologists (such as those working in geological surveys); students of volcanology and igneous petrology, and even people employed in the industry, such as those working on flood basalt-hosted groundwater or petroleum reservoirs.

Advances in Health and Environment Safety

Select Proceedings of HSFEA 2016

Author: N. A. Siddiqui,S. M. Tauseef,Kamal Bansal

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811071225

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 396

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This book comprises selected papers on advances in the field of health and environment safety that were presented at the leading international conference on advances in the field of health, safety, fire, environment, allied sciences and engineering (HSFEA 2016). The book focuses on the latest developments in the field of health and environment safety, and highlights related opportunities and challenges. The book also presents methods that can be used to effectively monitor and measure climate change and global warming. Further, the contents of this work stress the importance of maintaining safety and healthy work environments that are free of occupational health hazards. This book will be of interest to researchers, professionals, and policy makers alike.

Retrograde Evolution During Major Extinction Crises

Author: Jean Guex

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319279173

Category: Science

Page: 77

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This book is the first of its kind, providing in-depth analysis of the retrograde evolution occurring during major extinction periods. The text offers a non-strictly adaptative explanation of repetition of phyla after the major extinctions, utilizing a study of seven phylogenetically distinct groups. This opens a new experimental field in evolutionary biology with the possibility of reconstructing ancestral forms in lab by applying artificial stresses.

Internally Heated Convection and Rayleigh-Bénard Convection

Author: David Goluskin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319239414

Category: Science

Page: 64

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This Brief describes six basic models of buoyancy-driven convection in a fluid layer: three configurations of internally heated convection and three configurations of Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The author discusses the main quantities that characterize heat transport in each model, along with the constraints on these quantities. This presentation is the first to place the various models in a unified framework, and similarities and differences between the cases are highlighted. Necessary and sufficient conditions for convective motion are given. For the internally heated cases only, parameter-dependent lower bounds on the mean fluid temperature are proven, and results of past simulations and laboratory experiments are summarized and reanalyzed. The author poses several open questions for future study.

Data-Driven Numerical Modelling in Geodynamics: Methods and Applications

Author: Alik Ismail-Zadeh,Alexander Korotkii,Igor Tsepelev

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319278010

Category: Science

Page: 105

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This book describes the methods and numerical approaches for data assimilation in geodynamical models and presents several applications of the described methodology in relevant case studies. The book starts with a brief overview of the basic principles in data-driven geodynamic modelling, inverse problems, and data assimilation methods, which is then followed by methodological chapters on backward advection, variational (or adjoint), and quasi-reversibility methods. The chapters are accompanied by case studies presenting the applicability of the methods for solving geodynamic problems; namely, mantle plume evolution; lithosphere dynamics in and beneath two distinct geological domains – the south-eastern Carpathian Mountains and the Japanese Islands; salt diapirism in sedimentary basins; and volcanic lava flow. Applications of data-driven modelling are of interest to the industry and to experts dealing with geohazards and risk mitigation. Explanation of the sedimentary basin evolution complicated by deformations due to salt tectonics can help in oil and gas exploration; better understanding of the stress-strain evolution in the past and stress localization in the present can provide an insight into large earthquake preparation processes; volcanic lava flow assessments can advise on risk mitigation in the populated areas. The book is an essential tool for advanced courses on data assimilation and numerical modelling in geodynamics.

Geothermics

Heat Flow in the Lithosphere

Author: Vincenzo Pasquale,Massimo Verdoya,Paolo Chiozzi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319520849

Category: Science

Page: 138

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This book, now in its second edition, offers a comprehensive and modern treatment on the background knowledge of heat transfer processes in the lithosphere. In the light of the success of the first edition, several chapters of the book have been revised and the book has been enriched with a new chapter on geothermal methods used for the inference of past climate changes.The book starts with a brief review of global tectonics and of the structure of the crust and upper mantle. Then the theory of heat conduction as well as the thermal properties and the methods for the determination of thermal conductivity and radiogenic heat are introduced. Subsequently the geothermal flow and the thermal state of the lithosphere and deep interior are analyzed. The formation, upwelling mechanisms, solidification and cooling of magmas, which can be a fundamental heat source in many geothermal systems, are reviewed. Analytical methods used for gaining information on heat and groundwater flow from the analyses of temperature depth data are also covered. Data and practical examples are supplied to facilitate the understanding of the different topics.The book is intended for Earth science graduate students and researchers.

Bioactive Compounds from Marine Extremophiles

Author: Lesley-Ann Giddings,David J. Newman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319143611

Category: Science

Page: 150

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​This SpringerBrief sheds new light on bioactive materials from marine extremophiles. It deals with all aspects of the chemical compounds produced by organisms living under extreme conditions that may have potential as drugs or lead to novel drugs for human use.

Fluids in the Crust

Equilibrium and transport properties

Author: K. Shmulovich,Bruce Yardley,G. Gonchar

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401112266

Category: Science

Page: 323

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For much of the 20th century, scientific contacts between the Soviet Union and western countries were few and far between, and often super ficial. In earth sciences, ideas and data were slow to cross the Iron Curtain, and there was considerable mutual mistrust of diverging scient ific philosophies. In geochemistry, most western scientists were slow to appreciate the advances being made in the Soviet Union by os. Korz hinskii, who put the study of ore genesis on a rigorous thermodynamic basis as early as the 1930s. Korzhinskii appreciated that the most fun damental requirement for the application of quantitative models is data on mineral and fluid behaviour at the elevated pressures and temper atures that occur in the Earth's crust. He began the work at the Institute of Experimental Mineralogy (IEM) in 1965, and it became a separate establishment of the Academy of Sciences in Chernogolovka in 1969. The aim was to initiate a major programme of high P-T experimental studies to apply physical chemistry and thermodynamics to resolving geological problems. For many years, Chernogolovka was a closed city, and western scient ists were unable to visit the laboratories, but with the advent of peres troika in 1989, the first groups of visitors were eagerly welcomed to the IEM. What they found was an experimental facility on a massive scale, with 300 staff, including 80 researchers and most of the rest pro viding technical support.

On the Power of Fuzzy Markup Language

Author: Giovanni Acampora,Vincenzo Loia,Chang-Shing Lee,Mei-Hui Wang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642354882

Category: Computers

Page: 188

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One of the most successful methodology that arose from the worldwide diffusion of Fuzzy Logic is Fuzzy Control. After the first attempts dated in the seventies, this methodology has been widely exploited for controlling many industrial components and systems. At the same time, and very independently from Fuzzy Logic or Fuzzy Control, the birth of the Web has impacted upon almost all aspects of computing discipline. Evolution of Web, Web2.0 and Web 3.0 has been making scenarios of ubiquitous computing much more feasible; consequently information technology has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. What happens when Fuzzy Logic meets Web technology? Interesting results might come out, as you will discover in this book. Fuzzy Mark-up Language is a son of this synergistic view, where some technological issues of Web are re-interpreted taking into account the transparent notion of Fuzzy Control, as discussed here. The concept of a Fuzzy Control that is conceived and modeled in terms of a native web wisdom represents another step towards the last picture of Pervasive Web Intelligence.

Thrustbelts

Structural Architecture, Thermal Regimes and Petroleum Systems

Author: Michal Nemcok,Steven Schamel,Rod Gayer

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521110433

Category: Science

Page: 556

View: 8821

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Comprehensive summary of research and new techniques for academic researchers, petroleum workers and graduate students.

Boron Isotopes

The Fifth Element

Author: Horst Marschall,Gavin Foster

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319646664

Category: Science

Page: 289

View: 4931

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This new volume on boron isotope geochemistry offers review chapters summarizing the cosmochemistry, high-temperature and low-temperature geochemistry, and marine chemistry of boron. It also covers theoretical aspects of B isotope fractionation, experiments and atomic modeling, as well as all aspects of boron isotope analyses in geologic materials using the full range of solutions and in-situ methods. The book provides guidance for researchers on the analytical and theoretical aspects, as well as introducing the various scientific applications and research fields in which boron isotopes currently play a major role. The last compendium to summarize the geochemistry of boron and address its isotope geochemistry was published over 20 years ago (Grew &Anovitz, 1996, MSA Review, Vol.33), and there have since been significant advances in analytical techniques, applications and scientific insights into the isotope geochemistry of boron. This volume in the “Advances in Isotope Geochemistry” series provides a valuable source for students and professionals alike, both as an introduction to a new field and as a reference in ongoing research. Chapters 5 and 8 of this book are available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.com

Early Cretaceous Volcanism in Central and Eastern Argentina During Gondwana Break-Up

Author: Silvia Leonor Lagorio,Haroldo Vizán,Silvana Evangelina Geuna

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319295934

Category: Science

Page: 141

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This book analyzes the Early Cretaceous volcanic processes in Misiones Province and in Sierra Chica de Córdoba (Argentina). The volcanism in Misiones is tholeiitic and belongs to the Parana Magmatic Province (PMP), which extends throughout South America. In contrast, the volcanism in Córdoba is geographically restricted and of alkaline nature, representing a potassic locality peripheral to the PMP. To understand the causes of and geodynamic processes involved in these volcanisms, a new 40Ar /39Ar of 129.6 ± 1 Ma of a trachyte from Sierra Chica de Córdoba is presented. This dating points out that the volcanism in Sierra Chica de Córdoba slightly postdates PMP lavas. Moreover, complementary geochemical analyses from Misiones Province are presented and compared with those from the whole PMP in order to characterize its source