MATHEMATICAL FALLACIES AND PARADOXES DOVER BOOKS ON MATHEMATICS

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Stimulating, thought-provoking analysis of the most interesting intellectual inconsistencies in mathematics, physics, and language, including being led astray by algebra (De Morgan's paradox). 1982 edition.

Compiled by a prominent educator and author, this volume presents an intriguing mix of mathematical paradoxes — phenomena with surprising outcomes that can be resolved mathematically. Students and puzzle enthusiasts will get plenty of enjoyment mixed with a bit of painless mathematical instruction from 30 conundrums, including The Birthday Paradox, Aristotle's Magic Wheel, and A Greek Tragedy.

Rich selection of 100 practice problems — with hints and solutions — for students preparing for the William Lowell Putnam and other undergraduate-level mathematical competitions. Features real numbers, differential equations, integrals, polynomials, sets, other topics. Hours of stimulating challenge for math buffs at varying degrees of proficiency. References.

"Enjoyment as well as enlightenment is provided by trying to detect the fallacies, or at least by reading the solutions given by the author of this lovely little work." Science

The noted expert selects 70 of his favorite "short" puzzles, including such mind-bogglers as The Returning Explorer, The Mutilated Chessboard, Scrambled Box Tops, and dozens more involving logic and basic math. Solutions.

Contents include an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order; formal number theory; surveys of the work by Church, Turing, and others, including Gödel's completeness theorem, Gentzen's theorem, more.

Fair, witty appraisal of cranks, quacks, and quackeries of science and pseudoscience: hollow earth, Velikovsky, orgone energy, Dianetics, flying saucers, Bridey Murphy, food and medical fads, and much more.

Famed puzzle expert explains math behind a multitude of mystifying tricks: card tricks, stage "mind reading," coin and match tricks, counting out games, geometric dissections, etc. More than 400 tricks. 135 illustrations.

Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

Playing with mathematical riddles can be an intriguing and fun-filled pastime — as popular science writer Martin Gardner proves in this entertaining collection. Puzzlists need only an elementary knowledge of math and a will to resist looking up the answer before trying to solve a problem. Written in a light and witty style, Entertaining Mathematical Puzzles is a mixture of old and new riddles, grouped into sections that cover a variety of mathematical topics: money, speed, plane and solid geometry, probability, topology, tricky puzzles, and more. The probability section, for example, points out that everything we do, everything that happens around us, obeys the laws of probability; geometry puzzles test our ability to think pictorially and often, in more than one dimension; while topology, among the "youngest and rowdiest branches of modern geometry," offers a glimpse into a strange dimension where properties remain unchanged, no matter how a figure is twisted, stretched, or compressed. Clear and concise comments at the beginning of each section explain the nature and importance of the math needed to solve each puzzle. A carefully explained solution follows each problem. In many cases, all that is needed to solve a puzzle is the ability to think logically and clearly, to be "on the alert for surprising, off-beat angles...that strange hidden factor that everyone else had overlooked." Fully illustrated, this engaging collection will appeal to parents and children, amateur mathematicians, scientists, and students alike, and may, as the author writes, make the reader "want to study the subject in earnest" and explains "some of the inviting paths that wind away from the problems into lusher areas of the mathematical jungle." 65 black-and-white illustrations.

This book is an introduction to set theory for beginning graduate students who want to get a sound grounding in those aspects of set theory used extensively throughout other areas of mathematics. Topics covered include formal languages and models, the power and limitation of the Axiomatic Method, the Axiom of Choice, including the fascinating Banach-Tarski Paradox, applications of Zorn's Lemma, ordinal arithmetic, including transfinite induction, and cardinal arithmetic. The style of writing, more a dialogue with the reader than that of the Master indoctrinating the pupil, makes this also very suitable for self-study.

Martin Gardner's First Book of Mathematical Puzzles and Games

Author: Martin Gardner

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521756154

Category: Mathematics

Page: 193

View: 4670

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This book of the earliest of Gardner's enormously popular Scientific American columns and puzzles continues to challenge and fascinate readers. Now the author, in consultation with experts, has added updates to all the chapters, including new game variations, mathematical proofs, and other developments and discoveries.

Take an apple and cut it into five pieces. Would you believe that these five pieces can be reassembled in such a fashion so as to create two apples equal in shape and size to the original? Would you believe that you could make something as large as the sun by breaking a pea into a finite number of pieces and putting it back together again? Neither did Leonard Wapner, author of The Pea and the Sun, when he was first introduced to the Banach-Tarski paradox, which asserts exactly such a notion. Written in an engaging style, The Pea and the Sun catalogues the people, events, and mathematics that contributed to the discovery of Banach and Tarski's magical paradox. Wapner makes one of the most interesting problems of advanced mathematics accessible to the non-mathematician.

The writings of Newton, Leibniz, Pascal, Riemann, Bernoulli, and others in a comprehensive selection of 125 treatises dating from the Renaissance to the late 19th century — most unavailable elsewhere.

One of the subject's clearest, most entertaining introductions offers lucid explanations of special and general theories of relativity, gravity, and spacetime, models of the universe, and more. 100 illustrations.

We all lose time and money because of bad decisions, perfectly happy in the illusion that our common sense is choosing the right path for us. In Conned Again, Watson! Sherlock Holmes uses his vast knowledge solve crimes and protect the innocent in a series of cautionary tales of greedy gamblers, reckless businessmen and ruthless conmen. From 'The Execution of Andrews' to 'The Case of the Gambling Nobleman' and 'The Case of the Paranoid Student', there has never been a more exciting way to learn when to take a calculated risk - and how to spot a scam. In this illuminating collection of twelve new Sherlock Holmes stories, challenges of logic, probability, statistics, game theory and more are illustrated. A thought-provoking introduction to maths relevant to everyday life, this book will change the way you look at making decisions.

Through hard experience mathematicians have learned to subject even the most 'evident' assertions to rigorous scrutiny, as intuition and facile reasoning can often be misleading. However, errors can slip past the most watchful eye, they are often subtle and difficult to detect; but when found they can teach us a lot and can present a real challenge to straighten out. This book collects together a mass of such errors, drawn from the work of students, textbooks, and the media, as well as from professional mathematicians themselves. Each of these items is carefully analysed and the source of the error is exposed. All serious students of mathematics will find this book both enlightening and entertaining.