Opiate Receptors, Neurotransmitters, and Drug Dependence

Basic Science-Clinical Correlates

Author: Barry Stimmel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317840836

Category: Psychology

Page: 136

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Experts address the role of neuromodulators and opiate receptors in alcohol and drug dependence. They present innovative research techniques, new discoveries, and possible clinical correlates that allow for a much greater understanding of the clinical phenomena surrounding alcohol and narcotic use. Included in this thought-provoking volume are a comprehensive review of the current knowledge of the endogenous opiates, their interactions with the opiate receptors, and the potential relationship that these substances might have in promoting the development of dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal; the translation of the basic physiologic findings occuring during withdrawal to treatment of withdrawal symptoms in the clinical setting; and a physiological explanation for the rationale of using clonidine and naltrexone to accelaerate the detoxification process without undue discomfort.


Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function

Author: Roy Webster

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471978190

Category: Medical

Page: 544

View: 4915

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Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function aims to link basic aspects of the activity of neurotransmitters at the receptor and synaptic level with their role in normal brain function, disease states, and drug action. Thus, the material considers to what extent our knowledge of the central synaptic action of certain drugs can explain their possible roles in the cause of diseases and in the modes of action of drugs effective in those conditions. It offers a working explanation of drug and neurotransmitter action in CNS function, with a clear, comprehensive, and challenging style of writing. The authors review the chemical basis for drugs and the conditions they treat. It also, includes numerous illustrations and schematic diagrams.

Pathways of Addiction

Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research

Author: Committee on Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research,Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309520789

Category: Medical

Page: 302

View: 4566

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Drug abuse persists as one of the most costly and contentious problems on the nation's agenda. Pathways of Addiction meets the need for a clear and thoughtful national research agenda that will yield the greatest benefit from today's limited resources. The committee makes its recommendations within the public health framework and incorporates diverse fields of inquiry and a range of policy positions. It examines both the demand and supply aspects of drug abuse. Pathways of Addiction offers a fact-filled, highly readable examination of drug abuse issues in the United States, describing findings and outlining research needs in the areas of behavioral and neurobiological foundations of drug abuse. The book covers the epidemiology and etiology of drug abuse and discusses several of its most troubling health and social consequences, including HIV, violence, and harm to children. Pathways of Addiction looks at the efficacy of different prevention interventions and the many advances that have been made in treatment research in the past 20 years. The book also examines drug treatment in the criminal justice setting and the effectiveness of drug treatment under managed care. The committee advocates systematic study of the laws by which the nation attempts to control drug use and identifies the research questions most germane to public policy. Pathways of Addiction provides a strategic outline for wise investment of the nation's research resources in drug abuse. This comprehensive and accessible volume will have widespread relevance--to policymakers, researchers, research administrators, foundation decisionmakers, healthcare professionals, faculty and students, and concerned individuals.

Brain Receptor Methodologies Pt A

General Methods and Concepts. Amines and Acetylcholine

Author: Paul J. Marangos

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323152805

Category: Nature

Page: 384

View: 1855

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Brain Receptor Methodologies, Part A, General Methods and Concepts: Amines and Acetylcholine provides information pertinent to neurotransmitter and neuromodulator receptors in brain. This book explores the methodologies that can used to address several basic and clinical problems. Organized into two sections encompassing 18 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the receptor concept, which can be validated from indirect evidence obtained in studies of the quantitative aspects of drug antagonism. This text then examines the radioligand–receptor binding interactions. Other chapters consider immunocytochemistry, which has a primary role in determining the precise distribution of regulatory peptides to neural and endocrine elements of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. The final chapter discusses the use of the radioligand binding procedure for the study of muscarinic receptors, which has expanded the area of muscarinic receptor pharmacology. Biochemists, pharmacologists, physiologists, and researchers engaged in the fields of neurobiology and neuroscience will find this book extremely useful.

Neurobiology of Addiction

Author: George F. Koob,Michel Le Moal

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080497373

Category: Psychology

Page: 504

View: 6983

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Neurobiology of Addiction is conceived as a current survey and synthesis of the most important findings in our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction over the past 50 years. The book includes a scholarly introduction, thorough descriptions of animal models of addiction, and separate chapters on the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction for psychostimulants, opioids, alcohol, nicotine and cannabinoids. Key information is provided about the history, sources, and pharmacokinetics and psychopathology of addiction of each drug class, as well as the behavioral and neurobiological mechanism of action for each drug class at the molecular, cellular and neurocircuitry level of analysis. A chapter on neuroimaging and drug addiction provides a synthesis of exciting new data from neuroimaging in human addicts — a unique perspective unavailable from animal studies. The final chapters explore theories of addiction at the neurobiological and neuroadaptational level both from a historical and integrative perspective. The book incorporates diverse finding with an emphasis on integration and synthesis rather than discrepancies or differences in the literature. · Presents a unique perspective on addiction that emphasizes molecular, cellular and neurocircuitry changes in the transition to addiction · Synthesizes diverse findings on the neurobiology of addiction to provide a heuristic framework for future work · Features extensive documentation through numerous original figures and tables that that will be useful for understanding and teaching

Neuroscience of Psychoactive Substance Use and Dependence

Author: World Health Organization

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9241562358

Category: Law

Page: 264

View: 2664

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Neuroscience of Psychoactive Substance Use and Dependence provides an authoritative summary of current knowledge of the biological basis of substance use behaviours including their relationship with environmental factors. The report focuses on a wide range of psychoactive substances including tobacco alcohol and illicit drugs. New developments in neuroscience research are discussed (e.g. mechanisms governing craving tolerance neuroadaptation immunotherapies and the concept of dependence) as well the ethical implications of these developments. As the product of consultations with and contributions from many international experts and partners the best available evidence is provided from the various schools of thought and areas of research in the field of neuroscience. The most comprehensive overview on substance abuse written to date is provided in this book.... - The Annals of Pharmacotherapy Neuroscience of Psychoactive Substance Use and Dependence is targeted at individuals with more than a basic knowledge of neuroscience including scientists from a number of disciplines. It is expected that this publication will be of interest to health care workers clinicians social workers university students science teachers and informed policy makers. ...This is an outstanding publication with a very useful text for workers and researchers in the filed of substance abuse and dependence especially psychiatrists psychologists or trainees in these fields.... - South African Medical Journal

CNS Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators

Author: Trevor W. Stone

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849376320

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 8417

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CNS Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators: Dopamine is an indispensable single-volume resource for any researcher involved with dopamine in the central nervous system (CNS). Part of the CNS Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators Series, it is destined to be the definitive reference work on this topic. This book is comprised of independently authored chapters dealing with biochemistry, molecular biology and localization of dopamine receptors and transporters, receptor interactions, growth factors, new antipsychotic drugs, and the neuroendocrinal and retinal functions of dopamine. The authors, an international group of well-known researchers from varied disciplines, have utilized the most up-to-date material in preparing their reviews. CNS Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators: Dopamine is the perfect source for established researchers seeking the latest information or for students requiring an in-depth one-step introduction.

Brainstorming

The Science and Politics of Opiate Research

Author: Solomon H. Snyder

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medical

Page: 208

View: 5236

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The discovery of how opiates such as morphine and heroin relieve pain and produce euphoria is one of the most dramatic tales of modern science. It begins in 1971 when, at the height of the undeclared war in Vietnam, Richard Nixon officially announced a war on drugs. Heroin addiction--no longer confined to urban ghettos--was causing bad public relations for the White House. The specter of young American soldiers demoralized, drugged, and committing atrocities was not the image President Nixon wished to convey as he argued for further bombings of North Vietnam. In this book Solomon Snyder describes the political maneuverings and scientific sleuthing that led him and Candace Pert, then a graduate student in his lab, to a critical breakthrough in the effort to understand addiction. Their discovery--the so-called opiate receptor--is a structure on the surface of certain nerve cells that attracts opiates. Heroin or morphine molecules fit into opiate receptors much as a key fits into the ignition switch of a car--thus turning on the engine of the cell. Snyder and his students were able to show that nerve cells which possess opiate receptors are found in precisely those parts of the brain that control emotion and pain. Dr. Snyder describes the friendly yet intense competition from other researchers to expand upon this initial discovery. From the work of two Scottish investigators, Hans Kosterlitz and John Hughes, neuroscientists now know not only where opiate receptors are found in the brain but also why they are there: to serve as binding sites for an opiate-like substance produced by the brain itself--the brain's own morphine. This substance, called enkephalin, regulates pain, mood, and a host of other physiological functions. From this very human chronicle of scientific battles in the ongoing war against pain and addiction, we gain an appreciation of the extraordinary intellectual processes of an eminent scientist. But Dr. Snyder's story of scientific brainstorming also affords us rare glimpses into the fruitful, sometimes frustrating, relationships among scientists which enrich and complicate creative work. We are reminded of the delicate political alliances that are forged at every level of organization, from the lab bench to the Oval Office, as the scientific community attempts to fit its needs to those of the larger society.

Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse Volume 1

Foundations of Understanding, Tobacco, Alcohol, Cannabinoids and Opioids

Author: Victor R. Preedy

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128003766

Category: Science

Page: 1132

View: 7704

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Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse, Volume One: Foundations of Understanding, Tobacco, Alcohol, Cannabinoids, Opioids and Emerging Addictions provides the latest research in an area that shows that the neuropathological features of one addiction are often applicable to those of others. The book also details how a further understanding of these commonalties can provide a platform for the study of specific addictions in greater depth, all in an effort to create new modes of understanding, causation, prevention, and treatment. The three volumes in this series address new research and challenges, offering comprehensive coverage on the adverse consequences of the most common drugs of abuse, with each volume serving to update the reader’s knowledge on the broader field of addiction, while also deepening our understanding of specific addictive substances. Volume One addresses tobacco, alcohol, cannabinoids, and opioids, with each section providing data on the general, molecular/cellular, and structural/functional neurological aspects of a given substance, along with a focus on the adverse consequences of addictions. Provides a modern approach on the pathology of substances of abuse, offering an evidence based ethos for understanding the neurology of addictions Fills an existing gap in the literature by proving a one-stop-shopping synopsis of everything to do with the neuropathology of drugs of addiction and substance misuse Includes a list of abbreviations, abstracts, applications to other addictions and substance misuse, mini-dictionary of terms, summary points, 6+ figures and tables, and full references in each chapter Offers coverage of preclinical, clinical, and population studies, from the cell to whole organs, and the genome to whole body

The Neurobiology of Addiction

New Vistas

Author: Trevor W. Robbins,Barry J. Everitt,David J. Nutt

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199562156

Category: Medical

Page: 307

View: 7924

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In the past two decades, there have been astonishing advances in our understanding of the neurobiological basis and nature of drug addiction. We now know the initial molecular sites of action, at identified receptors, of virtually all of the major drugs of abuse including cocaine, heroin, and amphetamine, as well as legal drugs such as nicotine and alcohol. We also understand the main components of a 'reward system' and its connections to major brain regions involved in motivation and emotion, such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. The Neurobiology of Addiction describes the latest advances in our understanding of addiction. It brings together world class researchers to debate the nature and extent of addiction, as well as its causes, consequences, and treatment. The focus of the book is on the brain processes underlying addiction, in terms of neural systems, neurochemical basis, and molecular changes. Several types of addiction are discussed ranging from illicit drugs - cocaine, amphetamine, and heroin to legal drugs - alcohol and nicotine. In addition, it explores increasingly common behavioural addictions such as gambling and obesity. Included are chapters on vulnerability to addiction, genetic factors, opponent motivational processes, animal models, relapse, cognitive deficits associated with drug abuse, new pharmacological treatments, and current controversies concerning different neuropsychological theories of addiction. Throughout, it reports on cutting edge research using brain imaging, and state of the art molecular methodology. The book will make fascinating reading for students and teachers in the field of neuroscience, pharmacology and psychology, as well as experts in the field.

Memoirs of an Addicted Brain

A Neuroscientist Examines his Former Life on Drugs

Author: Marc Lewis

Publisher: PublicAffairs

ISBN: 1610391489

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 2777

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Marc Lewis's relationship with drugs began in a New England boarding school where, as a bullied and homesick fifteen-year-old, he made brief escapes from reality by way of cough medicine, alcohol, and marijuana. In Berkeley, California, in its hippie heyday, he found methamphetamine and LSD and heroin. He sniffed nitrous oxide in Malaysia and frequented Calcutta's opium dens. Ultimately, though, his journey took him where it takes most addicts: into a life of addiction, desperation, deception, and crime. But unlike most addicts, Lewis recovered and became a developmental psychologist and researcher in neuroscience. In Memoirs of an Addicted Brain, he applies his professional expertise to a study of his former self, using the story of his own journey through addiction to tell the universal story of addictions of every kind. He explains the neurological effects of a variety of powerful drugs, and shows how they speak to the brain—itself designed to seek rewards and soothe pain—in its own language. And he illuminates how craving overtakes the nervous system, sculpting a synaptic network dedicated to one goal—more—at the expense of everything else.

Drugs, Addiction, and the Brain

Author: George F. Koob,Michael A. Arends,Michel Le Moal

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123869595

Category: Psychology

Page: 350

View: 513

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Drugs, Addiction, and the Brain explores the molecular, cellular, and neurocircuitry systems in the brain that are responsible for drug addiction. Common neurobiological elements are emphasized that provide novel insights into how the brain mediates the acute rewarding effects of drugs of abuse and how it changes during the transition from initial drug use to compulsive drug use and addiction. The book provides a detailed overview of the pathophysiology of the disease. The information provided will be useful for neuroscientists in the field of addiction, drug abuse treatment providers, and undergraduate and postgraduate students who are interested in learning the diverse effects of drugs of abuse on the brain. Full-color circuitry diagrams of brain regions implicated in each stage of the addiction cycle Actual data figures from original sources illustrating key concepts and findings Introduction to basic neuropharmacology terms and concepts Introduction to numerous animal models used to study diverse aspects of drug use. Thorough review of extant work on the neurobiology of addiction

Neurobiology of Mental Illness

Author: Dennis S. Charney,Eric J. Nestler

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195189809

Category: Medical

Page: 1231

View: 1337

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The new edition of this definitive textbook reflects the continuing reintegration of psychiatry into the mainstream of biomedical science. The research tools that are transforming other branches of medicine - epidemiology, genetics, molecular biology, imaging, and medicinal chemistry - are also transforming psychiatry. The field stands poised to make dramatic advances in defining disease pathogenesis, developing diagnostic methods capable of identifying specific and valid disease entities, discovering novel and more effective treatments, and ultimately preventing psychiatric disorders. The Neurobiology of Mental Illness is written by world-renowned experts in basic neuroscience and the pathophysiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders. It begins with a succint overview of the basic neurosciences followed by and evaluation of the tools that are available for the study of mental disorders in humans. The core of the book is a series of consistently organized sections on the major psychiatric disorders that cover their diagnostic classification, molecular genetics, functional neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and pharmacology, neuroimaging, and principles of pharmacotherapy. Chapters are written in a clear style that is easily accessible to practicing psychiatrists, and yet they are detailed enough to interest researchers and academics.For this second edition, every section has been thoroughly updated, and 13 new chapters have been added in areas where significant advances have been made, including functional genomics and animal models of illness; epidemiology; cognitive neuroscience; postmortem investigation of human brain; drug discovery methods for psychiatric disorders; the neurobiology of schizophrenia; animal models of anxiety disorders; neuroimaging studies of anxiety disorders; developmental neurobiology and childhood onset of psychiatric disorders; the neurobiology of mental retardation; the interface between neurological and psychiatric disorders; the neurobiology of circadian rhythms; and the neurobiology of sleep disorders. Both as a textbook and a reference work, Neurobiology of Mental Illness represents a uniquely valuable resource for psychiatrists, neuroscientists, and their students or trainees.

Opioids I

Author: N.A

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642774601

Category: Medical

Page: 815

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This two-volume book provides the first comprehensive survey of opioid research, a field which has accumulated a tremendous amount of literature since the identification of opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands. In more than 60 chapters experts present state-of-the-art reviews of this fascinating field, the topics ranging from molecular biology to clinical applications. Part I covers the multiplicity of opioid receptors, the chemistry of opiates and opioid peptides as well as the neurophysiology of opioids. Part II reviews a broad spectrum of physiological and behavioral functions and pharmacological actions of opioids, together with their neuroendocrinology, opioid tolerance and dependence, concluding with pathophysiological aspects and clinical use.

Novel Therapeutic Approaches to the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

An Overview and Update

Author: Corey R. Hopkins

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319399268

Category: Science

Page: 151

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Medicinal chemistry is both science and art. The science of medicinal chemistry offers mankind one of its best hopes for improving the quality of life. The art of medicinal chemistry continues to challenge its practitioners with the need for both intuition and experience to discover new drugs. Hence sharing the experience of drug research is uniquely beneficial to the field of medicinal chemistry. Drug research requires interdisciplinary team-work at the interface between chemistry, biology and medicine. Therefore, the topic-related series Topics in Medicinal Chemistry covers all relevant aspects of drug research, e.g. pathobiochemistry of diseases, identification and validation of (emerging) drug targets, structural biology, drugability of targets, drug design approaches, chemogenomics, synthetic chemistry including combinatorial methods, bioorganic chemistry, natural compounds, high-throughput screening, pharmacological in vitro and in vivo investigations, drug-receptor interactions on the molecular level, structure-activity relationships, drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, toxicology and pharmacogenomics. In general, special volumes are edited by well known guest editors.

Biological basis of substance abuse

Author: Stanley G. Korenman,Jack D. Barchas

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195071542

Category: Medical

Page: 516

View: 9452

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This volume describes our current understanding of the biological mechanisms in the central nervous system of nicotine, alcohol, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and other drugs of abuse. Organized to focus on the similarities rather than the differences between drug actions, the processes undergo examination by level of cellular organization rather than by substance. The book proceeds from characterization of drug effects in relation to neurotransmitters and their receptors, through localization of drug effects in the brain in relation to specific anatomic structures. The impact of local stimulation or lesions on animal behaviors with respect to reward, reinforcement, desensitization and sensitization receive attention. Human genetic studies and therapeutic trials of addiction management complete the presentations.

Drug Addiction

From Basic Research to Therapy

Author: Rao S. Rapaka,Wolfgang Sadée

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387766782

Category: Medical

Page: 782

View: 8451

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This book provides a comprehensive overview of physiological, biochemical, and genetic pathways underlying drug addiction, and resultant efforts to develop novel treatment strategies dealing with drug addiction and other CNS disorders where the neurophysiological processes overlap, such as treatment of pain. The volume focuses on the translation of fundamental addiction research to a variety of treatments and brings together scientists with wide ranging expertise.

The Opiate Receptors

Author: Gavril W. Pasternak

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781607619932

Category: Medical

Page: 516

View: 4021

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This new edition covers the latest knowledge on opiate receptors and related receptor subtypes. It discusses many topics pertaining to the unique integrated approach of correlating the biochemical, physiological and pharmacological aspects of opiate reaction.

The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Nervous System

Author: Bertha Madras,Michael Kuhar

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0124186858

Category: Psychology

Page: 624

View: 1495

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Drug use and abuse continues to thrive in contemporary society worldwide and the instance and damage caused by addiction increases along with availability. The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Nervous System presents objective, state-of-the-art information on the impact of drug abuse on the human nervous system, with each chapter offering a specific focus on nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, MDMA, sedative-hypnotics, and designer drugs. Other chapters provide a context for drug use, with overviews of use and consequences, epidemiology and risk factors, genetics of use and treatment success, and strategies to screen populations and provide appropriate interventions. The book offers meaningful, relevant and timely information for scientists, health-care professionals and treatment providers. A comprehensive reference on the effects of drug addiction on the human nervous system Focuses on core drug addiction issues from nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, alcohol, and other commonly abused drugs Includes foundational science chapters on the biology of addiction Details challenges in diagnosis and treatment options