Opiate Receptors, Neurotransmitters, and Drug Dependence

Basic Science-Clinical Correlates

Author: Barry Stimmel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317840836

Category: Psychology

Page: 136

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Experts address the role of neuromodulators and opiate receptors in alcohol and drug dependence. They present innovative research techniques, new discoveries, and possible clinical correlates that allow for a much greater understanding of the clinical phenomena surrounding alcohol and narcotic use. Included in this thought-provoking volume are a comprehensive review of the current knowledge of the endogenous opiates, their interactions with the opiate receptors, and the potential relationship that these substances might have in promoting the development of dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal; the translation of the basic physiologic findings occuring during withdrawal to treatment of withdrawal symptoms in the clinical setting; and a physiological explanation for the rationale of using clonidine and naltrexone to accelaerate the detoxification process without undue discomfort.

Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function

Author: Roy Webster

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471978190

Category: Medical

Page: 544

View: 3851

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Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function aims to link basic aspects of the activity of neurotransmitters at the receptor and synaptic level with their role in normal brain function, disease states, and drug action. Thus, the material considers to what extent our knowledge of the central synaptic action of certain drugs can explain their possible roles in the cause of diseases and in the modes of action of drugs effective in those conditions. It offers a working explanation of drug and neurotransmitter action in CNS function, with a clear, comprehensive, and challenging style of writing. The authors review the chemical basis for drugs and the conditions they treat. It also, includes numerous illustrations and schematic diagrams.

CNS Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators

Author: Trevor W. Stone

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849376320

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 7775

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CNS Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators: Dopamine is an indispensable single-volume resource for any researcher involved with dopamine in the central nervous system (CNS). Part of the CNS Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators Series, it is destined to be the definitive reference work on this topic. This book is comprised of independently authored chapters dealing with biochemistry, molecular biology and localization of dopamine receptors and transporters, receptor interactions, growth factors, new antipsychotic drugs, and the neuroendocrinal and retinal functions of dopamine. The authors, an international group of well-known researchers from varied disciplines, have utilized the most up-to-date material in preparing their reviews. CNS Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators: Dopamine is the perfect source for established researchers seeking the latest information or for students requiring an in-depth one-step introduction.

Pain and Its Relief Without Addiction

Clinical Issues in the Use of Opioids and Other Analgesics

Author: Barry Stimmel

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781560249061

Category: Medical

Page: 418

View: 3161

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Pain and Its Relief Without Addiction will help people in pain understand why their pain is not always adequately relieved, as well as help reverse the failure of current medical practice to routinely alleviate pain. As noted by a 1992 publication of the United States Department of Health Services, this devastating trend contributes to unnecessary discomfort, longer recovery periods, and compromised patient outcomes. By reading this book, frustrated physicians and, perhaps more importantly, persons in pain can acquire a better understanding of the nature of pain, its connection to the emotions and psychological state of patients, and the impact particular drugs have on the body; this will facilitate relief from pain among a higher percentage of the population. Opioid analgesics comprise many of the chapters in Pain and Its Relief Without Addiction. Author Barry Stimmel, MD, describes the principles to be followed in prescribing opioid analgesics to relieve pain while maintaining one's daily activities without any limitation in function. The available opioids are described, and the differences between them are reviewed to allow you--as a physician, health care provider, or even a patient--to gain a better insight into the one(s) to use for both acute and chronic pain states. The point that is emphasized is that dependency on an analgesic to relieve pain is no different than dependency on medications to lower blood pressure, prevent heart attacks, treat diabetes, etc. What should be avoided is “addiction,” a condition where function is impaired rather than enhanced. Pain and Its Relief Without Addiction is a guidebook designed to assist physicians and other health professionals in developing a practical approach to pain management and to give patients a fuller understanding of their pain. You'll gain specific information about: management of acute and chronic pain pain in children pain and cancer pain and AIDS psychological support of persons in pain theories of pain perception the anatomy of pain In Pain and Its Relief Without Addiction, you'll learn the basic concepts of drug dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal, the pharmacological actions and side effects of drugs used to provide analgesia, and the fundamental steps to be taken in proper pharmacological treatment of pain. The book produces more effective and more informed communication among physicians, other health professionals, and patients so that together they can achieve better pain relief. As Pain and Its Relief Without Addiction illustrates, it is crucial that both patients and physicians understand clearly the terms describing drug use and the behavioral, biochemical, and cellular concepts underlying dependence, tolerance, and withdrawal. Finally, you will acquire a knowledge of all the potential causes of pain and the appropriate steps for intervention. Medical students, new practitioners, and those wishing to reconsider their approaches to pain management will benefit from the book's coverage of general principles for pain control, the use of drug combinations to provide the most effective relief, methods for treating pain in different populations (such as the elderly and persons with chronic medical conditions), and alternative options for failed treatment. The scope of Pain and Its Relief Without Addiction reaches from nonprescription medications, such as aspirin, to NSAIDS, like ibuprofen, to narcotic analgesics to stimulants such as amphetamines and caffeine. It is the most comprehensive book available on various drugs, their desired effects and side effects, and their use to alleviate pain.

Alcoholism, Drug Addiction, and the Road to Recovery

Life on the Edge

Author: Barry Stimmel

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780789005533

Category: Psychology

Page: 414

View: 7233

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Gain a fuller understanding of substance addiction and treatment options! Originally published in 1992 as The Facts About Drug Use, this updated edition contains new information about the effects of alcohol and recreational, mood-altering drugs on the body. The multiple causes of drug use and the options available to those dependent on drugs as a way of life are thoroughly and clearly described. Drug use affects nearly 1 out of 2 Americans and cuts across every social and economic boundary. The effects of addiction on the individual are great, and the cumulative effects on society are staggering. Knowledge of the adverse effects of mood-altering drugs and why and how they are used excessively is a centerpiece of this book. It presents, intelligently and interestingly, ways to identify persons at risk and identify problems that the addicted encounter in attempts to become drug free. Alcoholism, Drug Addiction, and the Road to Recovery: Life on the Edge is an essential tool in both finding available resources for drug users and developing appropriate responses to today's drug problem. This remarkable, well-referenced book enables those with little or no background in science or health care to understand the complex issues surrounding drug use. It provides current, reliable, and unbiased information on methods for dealing with dependency upon alcohol and central nervous system depressants, hallucinogens, heroin, nicotine, marijuana, caffeine, amphetamines, designer drugs like Ecstasy, and steroids. A glossary listing common street names for drugs will be invaluable to those interested in identifying specific substances. This comprehensive volume will show you: who typically uses drugs and the reasons why they do how to classify mood-altering drugs how to identify and treat drug dependency areas of special concern such as multiple drug use, AIDS and drug use, drugs and pregnancy, drugs and sports, and drug testing technology Chapter by chapter, this nonjudgmental book helps readers develop a better understanding of the effects of mood-altering substances and the reasons many continue to use them despite serious consequences. This is a valuable key to the nature of dependency and addiction, and the external forces (including poverty and homelessness) that promote such behavior.

Brainstorming

The Science and Politics of Opiate Research

Author: Solomon H. Snyder

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medical

Page: 208

View: 5416

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The discovery of how opiates such as morphine and heroin relieve pain and produce euphoria is one of the most dramatic tales of modern science. It begins in 1971 when, at the height of the undeclared war in Vietnam, Richard Nixon officially announced a war on drugs. Heroin addiction--no longer confined to urban ghettos--was causing bad public relations for the White House. The specter of young American soldiers demoralized, drugged, and committing atrocities was not the image President Nixon wished to convey as he argued for further bombings of North Vietnam. In this book Solomon Snyder describes the political maneuverings and scientific sleuthing that led him and Candace Pert, then a graduate student in his lab, to a critical breakthrough in the effort to understand addiction. Their discovery--the so-called opiate receptor--is a structure on the surface of certain nerve cells that attracts opiates. Heroin or morphine molecules fit into opiate receptors much as a key fits into the ignition switch of a car--thus turning on the engine of the cell. Snyder and his students were able to show that nerve cells which possess opiate receptors are found in precisely those parts of the brain that control emotion and pain. Dr. Snyder describes the friendly yet intense competition from other researchers to expand upon this initial discovery. From the work of two Scottish investigators, Hans Kosterlitz and John Hughes, neuroscientists now know not only where opiate receptors are found in the brain but also why they are there: to serve as binding sites for an opiate-like substance produced by the brain itself--the brain's own morphine. This substance, called enkephalin, regulates pain, mood, and a host of other physiological functions. From this very human chronicle of scientific battles in the ongoing war against pain and addiction, we gain an appreciation of the extraordinary intellectual processes of an eminent scientist. But Dr. Snyder's story of scientific brainstorming also affords us rare glimpses into the fruitful, sometimes frustrating, relationships among scientists which enrich and complicate creative work. We are reminded of the delicate political alliances that are forged at every level of organization, from the lab bench to the Oval Office, as the scientific community attempts to fit its needs to those of the larger society.

Biological basis of substance abuse

Author: Stanley G. Korenman,Jack D. Barchas

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195071542

Category: Medical

Page: 516

View: 2012

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This volume describes our current understanding of the biological mechanisms in the central nervous system of nicotine, alcohol, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and other drugs of abuse. Organized to focus on the similarities rather than the differences between drug actions, the processes undergo examination by level of cellular organization rather than by substance. The book proceeds from characterization of drug effects in relation to neurotransmitters and their receptors, through localization of drug effects in the brain in relation to specific anatomic structures. The impact of local stimulation or lesions on animal behaviors with respect to reward, reinforcement, desensitization and sensitization receive attention. Human genetic studies and therapeutic trials of addiction management complete the presentations.

Manual of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

Guidelines for Teaching in Medical and Health Institutions

Author: A. Arif,J. Westermeyer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461595169

Category: Medical

Page: 350

View: 8617

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During the last few centuries, and particularly in recent decades, problems result ing from the excessive use of drugs and alcohol have spread virtually as an epidemic to every country in the world and to almost every community. Abuse of alcohol and drugs is related to numerous other health problems, such as the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on all continents. Health and social services today cannot afford to ignore this crisis since it affects all levels of society and manifests itself in diverse health and social problems. In recent years, the World Health Organization has received numerous requests for training material for physicians in this field. This manual therefore meets an urgent need. The availability of new data and the dearth of suitable textbooks have made its preparation mandatory. The influence of sociocultural factors on drug dependence and alcohol related problems-on their cause, development, and consequences as well as on their treatment and prevention-has been taken into account in the preparation of this manual in order to ensure that its usefulness is not limited to one country or region. It has been prepared primarily for the teaching of physicians and medical students, although much of it is relevant to the training of nurses, midwives, health educators, primary-care workers, medical social workers, counselors, and psychologists. In fact, suggestions have been included for adapting the manual for use in the training of such varied groups of students.

Opiate Receptors and Antagonists

From Bench to Clinic

Author: Reginald Dean,Edward J. Bilsky,S. Stevens Negus

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781597451970

Category: Medical

Page: 757

View: 9578

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Comprehensive and authoritative, Opioid Receptors and Antagonists: From Bench to Clinic offers neuroscientists, pharmacologists and interested clinicians a unique survey of the extensive and diverse research efforts currently employed with opioid antagonists to develop novel innovative drug therapies. Summarizes the present understanding of the chemistry, pharmacology and molecular biology of opioid receptors and their subtypes Highlights differences and similarities between the opioid pharmacology of animals and human Describes current and potential therapeutic areas for opioid antagonists, including substance abuse, alcohol and ingestive behaviors, behavioral disorders and other medical indications, supported by nonclinical and clinical evidence Focuses on the development of exciting and innovative drug delivery approaches that are being used with opioid antagonists for the above medical indications

Drug Addiction

From Basic Research to Therapy

Author: Rao S. Rapaka,Wolfgang Sadée

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387766782

Category: Medical

Page: 782

View: 2807

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This book provides a comprehensive overview of physiological, biochemical, and genetic pathways underlying drug addiction, and resultant efforts to develop novel treatment strategies dealing with drug addiction and other CNS disorders where the neurophysiological processes overlap, such as treatment of pain. The volume focuses on the translation of fundamental addiction research to a variety of treatments and brings together scientists with wide ranging expertise.

Cocaine

Pharmacology, Addiction, and Therapy

Author: Mark Galanter,Barry Stimmel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317735730

Category: Psychology

Page: 184

View: 6645

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Here is a timely volume that reviews the current state of knowledge of cocaine use. Some of the country’s leading authorities on cocaine use and abuse examine the pharmacology and neurochemistry of central stimulant abuse with a focus on the specific effects of cocaine. They also address recent experiences concerning the epidemiology of cocaine use from several different databases. This highly useful and informative book also explains the effectiveness of the existing diagnostic and treatment approaches.

A Health Educator’s Guide to Understanding Drugs of Abuse Testing

Author: Amitava Dasgupta

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 9780763765897

Category: Medical

Page: 230

View: 8256

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The drug free workplace initiative was started in 1986 by President Ronald Reagan when he issued an executive order to develop guidelines for drug abuse testing for Federal Government employees. Since then, most state, government, and private employers have adopted the policy of a drug free workplace. Today, pre-employment drug testing is almost mandatory and passing the drug test is a condition for hire. A Health Educator's Guide to Understanding Drug Abuse Testing describes in layman’s language the process of testing for drugs and provides coverage of what potential employees are being tested for, how the tests are performed, and what foods and drugs may affect the test results and may jeopardize a person's chance of being hired. Written by a practicing toxicologist, this text gives health educators a solid foundation in the process of drug testing and helps them understand how different methods of cheating drug tests are rendered ineffectual.


False Messengers

How Addictive Drugs Change the Brain

Author: David P. Friedman,Sue Rusche

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0203304977

Category: Science

Page: 248

View: 9989

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This book provides a scientific explanation of drug abuse and addiction for the general public. It clarifies the meaning of concepts such as intoxication, physical dependence, and addiction, and describes the changes in the brain that underlie these states. Indeed, this volume is unique because it presents a comprehensive picture of what actually happens to people and their brains when they chronically self-administer opiates, stimulants or alcohol. Complex mechanisms of drug action in the brain are made simple and comprehensible to the layman through use of informative analogies and salient graphics. Accounts of the effects of drug use and abuse on normal people create meaningful, easy-to-relate-to examples from everyday life.

Concise Clinical Pharmacology

Author: Ben Greenstein,Adam Greenstein

Publisher: Pharmaceutical Press

ISBN: 9780853695769

Category: Medical

Page: 302

View: 6334

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Concise Clinical Pharmacology is a thorough introduction to the subject from which students can gain a rapid understanding of individual topics within the discipline. Pharmacological principles and mechanisms are covered, with a focus on the therapeutic use of the drugs. Concise Clinical Pharmacology will be invaluable to undergraduate pharmacy students, and clinical medical students. the strong clinical focus should also appeal to practitioners.

Research Advances in Alcohol and Drug Problems

Author: Reginald G. Smart,Howard D. Cappell,Frederick B Glaser,Yedy Israel,Harold Kalant,Robert E. Popham,Wolfgang Schmidt,Edward M. Sellers

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461327199

Category: Science

Page: 333

View: 9913

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This volume is the eighth in the Research Advances Series and the fifth published by Plenum Press. The purpose of the series is to review new work in rapidly changing fields. We do not expect reviews to cover the whole field of work on alcoholism and addiction. Nor do we expect that they will be like annual reviews covering all work in a delimited field. Our reviews are designed to explore only the most exciting parts of the total field and to focus on conclusions that can be made about them. The series publishes one volume each year. Volume 8 is an omnibus rather than a theme volume in that a wide range of topics is covered, including research on alcohol, opiates, and tobacco. As usual, the greater emphasis is on alcohol research, reflecting the importance of the problem and the volume of work to be reviewed. With Volume 8 come some changes in the Editorial Board. It will be the last volume in the series for Robert E. Popham who has resigned from the Board. He has been with the series since its inception and has contributed a great deal to its development. The members of the Board are grateful for his help. We are adding two new members: Dr. Howard Cappell, whose field is experimental psychology, and Dr. Edward M. Sellers, in clinical medicine and pharmacology.

Determinants of Substance Abuse

Biological , Psychological, and Environmental Factors

Author: Mark Galizio,Stephen A. Maisto

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 147579990X

Category: Psychology

Page: 444

View: 7102

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With the recent increase in the scope of drug and alcohol problems has come an awareness of the need for solutions. In this context, federal support for research on drug problems increased tremendously during the last 10 to 15 years with the establishment of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Funding from these and other sources has led to a substantial increase in the quantity and quality ofpublished work related to substance abuse. As data accumulate, it is becoming more apparent that substance abuse problems are extremely complex and are influenced by a variety ofbiological psychological, and environmental variables. Un fortunately it has proved difficult to go beyond this conclusion to a de scription of how these multiple factors work tagether to influence the development of, and recovery from, drug and alcohol dependence. The purpose of this book is to try to meet that objective by including, in one volume, Iiterature reviews and theoretical analyses from a wide variety of drug researchers. We chose the authors in an attempt to assure that each of the various Ievels of analysis appropriate to the substance abuse problems would be included. In each case, the author was asked to consider how the variables in is or her particular domain might con tribute to the appearance of individual differences in both alcohol and drug problems.

Manual of School Health - E-Book

A Handbook for School Nurses, Educators, and Health Professionals

Author: Keeta DeStefano Lewis,Bonnie J. Bear

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1455712264

Category: Medical

Page: 672

View: 5640

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Completely updated, the 3rd edition of this practical, highly portable manual offers quick access to the most relevant health and wellness information for children -- from birth through age 21 – in the school setting. You’ll find valuable guidance on developmental stages, learning domains, acute and chronic illnesses, first aid, medical syndromes, special education, and emergency illness. This edition also addresses the growing array of issues affecting today’s children, including mental health disorders, disaster management, substance abuse, and school violence, as well as new threats such as West Nile virus, dermatological conditions, and the reemergence of tuberculosis. Ideal for use in school and community settings, this manual is a must-have resource for anyone who works with children. A best practice approach to health issues and concerns helps you provide the best possible care to students. A clear, consistent outline format and straightforward writing style make it easy to locate and apply essential information. Updated content includes important contemporary issues in schools, such as body piercing, backpack syndrome, and computer ergonomics. Brain Findings section offers relevant information about recent brain and neurology research, with insights on how it relates to childhood development and health. Numerous appendices, including the latest growth charts and immunization schedules, provide essential information for assessing school age children. English-Spanish translation guide for common health terms and phrases helps you communicate more effectively with Hispanic students. Web site resources at the end of each chapter provide reliable sources for further information and research. A convenient Glossary familiarizes you with important terminology and definitions used throughout the book. New, user-friendly design helps you find key information quickly with helpful boxes, tables, and headings. New 8-page color insert serves as an instant visual reference to help you identify rashes, skin lesions, and other dermatological conditions that are common among school-age children. A separate chapter on first aid walks you through the management of common injuries and emergency situations. Revised mental health chapter presents current, detailed information on the major mental disorders that affect school-age children such as depression, autism, and Asperger's, with an extensive psychotropic medication table. A new chapter devoted to disaster management includes the latest information on bioterrorism and homeland security threats to help you create an action plan for disaster situations. A revised chapter on violence addresses sexual assault, self-mutilation, suicide, domestic violence, and violence in the schools, to help you stay informed about current societal trends, issues, and developments. New information on teen pregnancy offers helpful guidelines on communicating with students about this important issue.

Addiction, An Issue of Psychiatric Clinics - E-Book

Author: Itai Danovitch,John J. Mariani

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1455744344

Category: Medical

Page: 294

View: 5596

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This completely new and updated issue takes a focused look at addiction psychiatry in three sections: Diagnostics, Therapeutics, and New Directions. Dr. Danovitch, from Cedars-Sinai and Dr. Mariani from Columbia hone in on the most rapidly advancing and relevant areas of addiction for practitioners today, from defining addiction (implications of DSM-V), to genetics and neurobiology, to specific treatment options for a variety of patient populations: for pregnant women, adolescents, and patients suffering from chronic pain, for example. A variety of addiction types are discussed (ie, opioid, stimulant, and cannabis). The issue closes with discussions of emerging trends, systems of care, investigational therapeutics and the role of the criminal justice system.

Handbook of the Medical Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse

Author: John Brick

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113686458X

Category: HEALTH & FITNESS

Page: 638

View: 3598

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The essential newly-expanded reference that needs to be on the desk of every health care professional who encounters substance abusers. Handbook of the Medical Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Second Edition is the newly-updated classic reference text that provides even more detailed and expanded information on the pharmacological, toxicological, and neuropsychological consequences of alcohol and drug abuse. Eight new chapters of crucial information have been added. Written by leading experts in the fields of medical physiology, psychopharmacology, and neuropsychology, this valuable resource provides the detailed alcohol and drug information health professionals in all fields need to know. Handbook of the Medical Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Second Edition greatly expands on the expert information provided in the first edition. This text provides reviews of the cardiovascular, neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, psychological, and hepatic effects of commonly abused drugs. The book also provides in-depth explanations of the mechanisms by which these psychoactive drugs exert their biobehavioral effects as well as current thinking about—and definitions of—abuse, dependence, and alcohol/drug use. The Handbook of the Medical Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Second Edition includes vital information on: alcohol, including definitions of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence the relationship between alcohol and accidental injuries, alcohol’s effect on skeletal and major organ systems, and its effect on risk factors for certain cancers effects of alcohol and other drugs on neuropsychological function the effects of alcohol on neuron signaling, neurotransmitter function, and alcoholic brain damage and cognitive dysfunction fetal alcohol effects chronic effects of marijuana use on psychological and physical health, including a fair and balanced discussion of the medical marijuana issue the consequences of opiate abuse and methadone pharmacotherapy, including a comparison of the effects of methadone and heroin on organ systems cocaine’s history, the various forms of the drug, and the adverse effects of cocaine on cardiovascular, neurologic, and pulmonary systems the medical consequences of inhalants ranging from benzene to xylene the prenatal effects of nicotine, cocaine, marijuana, and opiates terminology that appears in the current literature on alcohol New topics in the Handbook of the Medical Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Second Edition include chapters discussing: chemical dependency in psychiatric patients medical consequences of steroids OTC medications hallucinogens health effects of tobacco, nicotine, and exposure to tobacco smoke interactions of alcohol with other drugs and other medications periodontal effects of alcohol and drug abuse in the oral cavity imaging studies of structural brain changes The Handbook of the Medical Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Second Edition is an invaluable resource for physicians, scientists, nurses, psychologists, and alcohol and drug counselors.