Philosophy of Science

The Central Issues, Second International Student Edition

Author: J. A. Cover,Martin Curd,Christopher Pincock

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393920801

Category: Philosophy

Page: 1393

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Both an anthology and an introductory textbook, Philosophy of Science: The Central Issues offers instructors and students a comprehensive anthology of fifty-two primary texts by leading philosophers in the field and provides extensive editorial commentary that places the readings in a wide philosophical context.


Philosophy of Science: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Samir Okasha

Publisher: Oxford Paperbacks

ISBN: 9780192802835

Category: Philosophy

Page: 144

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This Very Short Introduction provides a concise overview of the main themes of contemporary philosophy of science. Beginning with a short history of science to set the scene, Samir Okasha goes on to investigate the nature of scientific reasoning, scientific explanation, revolutions in science, and theories such as realism and anti-realism. He also looks at philosophical issues in particular sciences.

Philosophy of Science and the Occult

Author: Patrick Grim

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9781438404981

Category: Philosophy

Page: 395

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This book both introduces the philosophy of science through examination of the occult and examines the occult rigorously enough to raise central issues in the philosophy of science. Placed in the context of the occult, philosophy of science issues become immediately understandable and forcefully compelling. Divergent views on astrology, parapsychology, and quantum mechanics mysticism emphasize topics standard to the philosophy of science. Such issues as confirmation and selection for testing, causality and time, explanation and the nature of scientific laws, the status of theoretical entities, the problem of demarcation, theory and observation, and science and values are discussed. Significantly revised, this second edition presents an entirely new section of quantum mechanics and mysticism including instructions from N. David Mermin for constructing a device which dramatically illustrates the genuinely puzzling phenomena of quantum mechanics. A more complete and current review of research on astrology has been included in this new edition, and the section on the problem of demarcation has been broadened.



The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science

Author: Martin Curd,Stathis Psillos

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135011087

Category: Philosophy

Page: 736

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The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science is an indispensable reference source and guide to the major themes, debates, problems and topics in philosophy of science. It contains sixty-two specially commissioned entries by a leading team of international contributors. Organized into four parts it covers: historical and philosophical context debates concepts the individual sciences. The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science addresses all of the essential topics that students of philosophy of science need to know - from empiricism, explanation and experiment to causation, observation, prediction and more - and contains many helpful features including chapters on individual sciences (such as biology, chemistry, physics and psychology), further reading and cross-referencing at the end of each chapter. Expanded and revised throughout, this second edition includes new chapters on Conventionalism, Social Epistemology, Computer Simulation, Thought Experiments, Pseudoscience, Species and Taxonomy, and Cosmology.

Education, Science and Truth

Author: Rasoul Nejadmehr

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135840644

Category: Education

Page: 222

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What is the main problem of contemporary education? Rasoul Nejadmehr argues that the cardinal problem with education is that it does not have an adequate notion of truth underpinning it. Thinkers mainly tend to veer towards two poles - absolutism and relativism. While a one-sided tendency toward absolutism leads to reified categories of thought and alienation, a tendency toward relativism leads to lack of universality and nihilism. Education, Science and Truth suggests a way out by bridging not only divides between and within analytical and continental philosophy but also those of modernism and postmodernism. By using a range of issues, disciplines and literature, Nejadmehr formulates a new version of the concept of objectivity based on the inclusion of multiple perspectives, including ones from art, philosophy and marginalized groups.

Philosophy of Science

A Contemporary Introduction

Author: Alex Rosenberg

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136662618

Category: Philosophy

Page: 320

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Any serious student attempting to better understand the nature, methods and justification of science will value Alex Rosenberg’s updated and substantially revised Third Edition of Philosophy of Science: A Contemporary Introduction. Weaving together lucid explanations and clear analyses, the volume is a much-used, thematically oriented introduction to the field. New features of the Third Edition include more coverage of the history of the philosophy of science, more fully developed material on the metaphysics of causal and physical necessity, more background on the contrast between empiricism and rationalism in science, and new material on the structure of theoretical science (with expanded coverage of Newtonian and Darwinian theories and models) and the realism/antirealism controversy. Rosenberg also divides the Third Edition into fifteen chapters, aligning each chapter with a week in a standard semester-long course. Updated Discussion Questions, Glossary, Bibliography and Suggested Readings lists at the end of each chapter will make the Third Edition indispensable, either as a comprehensive stand-alone text or alongside the many wide-ranging collections of articles and book excerpts currently available. Read our interview with Alex Rosenberg, What exactly is philosophy of science – and why does it matter? here: www.routledge.com/u/alexrosenberg

Realism in the Sciences

Proceedings of the Ernan McMullin Symposium, Leuven, 1995

Author: Igor Douven,Leon Horsten

Publisher: Leuven University Press

ISBN: 9789061867630

Category: Philosophy

Page: 216

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The Concept of Scientific Law in the Philosophy of Science and Epistemology

A Study of Theoretical Reason

Author: Igor Hanzel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401732655

Category: Science

Page: 230

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The author argues that a reconstruction of scientific laws should give an account of laws relating phenomena to underlying mechanisms generating them, as well as of laws relating this mechanism to its inherent capacities. While contemporary philosophy of science deals only with the former, the author provides the concept for the reconstruction of scientific laws, where the knowledge of the phenomena enables one to grasp the quantity of their cause. He then provides the concepts for scientific laws dealing with the relation of the quantity and quality of the cause underlying phenomena to the quality and quantity of its capacities. Finally, he provides concepts for scientific laws expressing how a certain cause, due to the quantity and quality of its capacities, generates the quantitative and qualitative determinations of its manifestations. The book is intended for philosophers of science and philosophers of social science, as well as for natural and social scientists.


The Philosophy of Social Science

New Perspectives, 2nd edition

Author: Garry Potter

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317331850

Category: Social Science

Page: 286

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Now in its second edition, this comprehensive textbook offers an exceptionally accessible yet in-depth introduction to the philosophy of social science. Students with no previous knowledge will find themselves taken on an engaging philosophical journey: the book’s unique dialogue format anticipates their most frequently asked questions and provides clear explanations of specialised terminology and essential contextualisation of contemporary debates. Encompassing both traditional and contemporary perspectives, the book explores the questions and debates raised by all the major theoretical positions in the philosophy of social science, including positivism, empiricism, rationalism, hermeneutics, feminist epistemology, postmodernism and critical realism. The first edition of this book had a Eurocentric bias, as does virtually all other textbooks covering this subject matter. This has been corrected in the second edition and includes a new chapter on the contributions of Islam to philosophy, natural science social science including sociology. The second edition also has a newly written chapter on pragmaticism and neo-pragmaticism, as well as strengthened coverage of hermeneutics, postmodernism and critical realism. The book‘s rich pedagogic support includes: point-by-point summaries introducing the scope of every chapter; discussion questions; further reading lists; and a glossary of key terminology. This excellent textbook is designed to provide every student with a clear understanding of important and complex issues. It is essential reading for all students of philosophy of social science, whether at undergraduate or Masters level and regardless of their disciplinary background.

Handbook of the Psychology of Science

Author: Gregory J. Feist, PhD,Michael E. Gorman, PhD

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 0826106242

Category: Psychology

Page: 544

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"Highly recommended."--Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries This handbook is the definitive resource for scholars and students interested in how research and theory within each of the major domains of psychologyódevelopmental, cognitive, personality, and socialóhave been applied to understand the nature of scientific thought and behavior. Edited by two esteemed pioneers in the emerging discipline of the psychology of science, it is the first empirically based compendium of its time. The handbook provides a comprehensive examination of how scientific thinking is learned and evolves from infancy to adolescence and adulthood, and combines developmental and cognitive approaches to show the categorical similarities and differences in thinking between children, adolescents, adults, and scientists. Chapters highlight the breadth and depth of psychological perspectives in the studies of science, from creativity and genius, gender, and conflict and cooperation, to postmodernism and psychobiography. A section on applications offers findings and ideas that can be put to use by educators, policymakers, and science administrators. Contributors examine the importance of mental models in solving difficult technical problems, and the significance of leadership and organizational structure in successful innovation. The final section of the book is devoted to the future of this new field, focusing on how to continue to develop a healthy psychology of science. Key Features: Presents the only empirically based compendium of current knowledge about the psychology of scientific thought and behavior Edited by two pioneers in the discipline of psychology of science Describes how scientific thinking is learned and changes throughout the life span Addresses creativity and genius, gender, conflict and cooperation, postmodernism, and psychobiography Covers applications of the psychology of science that can be used by educators, policymakers, and science administrators

What Place for the A Priori?

Author: Michael J. Shaffer,Michael L. Veber

Publisher: Open Court

ISBN: 0812697413

Category: Philosophy

Page: 384

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This book deals with questions about the nature of a priori knowledge and its relation to empirical knowledge. Until the twentieth century, it was more or less taken for granted that there was such a thing as a priori knowledge, that is, knowledge whose source is in reason and reflection rather than sensory experience. With a few notable exceptions, philosophers believed that mathematics, logic and philosophy were all a priori. Although the seeds of doubt were planted earlier on, by the early twentieth century, philosophers were widely skeptical of the idea that there was any nontrivial existence of a priori knowledge. By the mid to late twentieth century, it became fashionable to doubt the existence of any kind of a priori knowledge at all. Since many think that philosophy is an a priori discipline if it is any kind of discipline at all, the questions about a priori knowledge are fundamental to our understanding of philosophy itself.

Science Teaching

The Contribution of History and Philosophy of Science, 20th Anniversary Revised and Expanded Edition

Author: Michael R. Matthews

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136336753

Category: Education

Page: 478

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Science Teaching explains how history and philosophy of science contributes to the resolution of persistent theoretical, curricular, and pedagogical issues in science education. It shows why it is essential for science teachers to know and appreciate the history and philosophy of the subject they teach and how this knowledge can enrich science instruction and enthuse students in the subject. Through its historical perspective, the book reveals to students, teachers, and researchers the foundations of scientific knowledge and its connection to philosophy, metaphysics, mathematics, and broader social influences including the European Enlightenment, and develops detailed arguments about constructivism, worldviews and science, multicultural science education, inquiry teaching, values, and teacher education. Fully updated and expanded, the 20th Anniversary Edition of this classic text, featuring four new chapters—The Enlightenment Tradition; Joseph Priestley and Photosynthesis; Science, Worldviews and Education; and Nature of Science Research—and 1,300 references, provides a solid foundation for teaching and learning in the field.

The Philosophy of Evidence-based Medicine

Author: Jeremy H. Howick

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444342665

Category: Medical

Page: 248

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Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has become a required element of clinical practice, but it is critical for the healthcare community to understand the ongoing controversy surrounding EBM. Seeking to address questions raised by critics, The Philosophy of Evidence-based Medicine challenges the over dependency of EBM on randomized controlled trials. This book also explores EBM methodology and its relationship with other approaches used in medicine.

Critically Reading the Theory and Methods of Archaeology

An Introductory Guide

Author: Guy Gibbon

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 075912342X

Category: Social Science

Page: 254

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Critically Reading the Theory and Methods of Archaeology stands out as the most thorough and practical guide to the essential critical reading and writing skills that all students, instructors, and practitioners should have. It provides priceless insight for the here and now of the Theory and Methods of Archaeology classes and for a lifetime of reading, learning, teaching, and writing. Chapters focus on rigorous reasoning skills, types of argument, the main research orientations in archaeology, the basic procedural framework that underlies all schools of archaeology, and issues in archaeology raised by skeptical postmodernists.

Philosophy of Science for Nursing Practice

Concepts and Application

Author: Michael D. Dahnke, PhD,H. Michael Dreher, PhD, RN, FAAN

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 9780826105554

Category: Medical

Page: 368

View: 3430

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Named a 2013 Doody's Core Title! "A challenge ahead for nursing is to take the path of most resistance rather than the easier road of least resistance. The debate needs to continue...[by focusing on] whether nursing is teaching an appropriate level of inquiry including philosophy and methodologies specific to those real-world, rapidly changing conditions that characterize today's practice environment." From the Foreword by Sally J. Reel, PhD, RN, FNP, BC, FAAN, FAANP University of Arizona College of Nursing "I have taught a philosophy of science course intermittently for about 20 years. Philosophy of Science for Nursing Practice is not only the most succinct, insightful, well-organized presentation of information I've yet seen, but drives thinking to where it ought to be." Laura Cox Dzurec, PhD, PMHCNS-BC Dean and Professor Kent State University College of Nursing "This appears to be the first book that focuses on the philosophy of science and its application to practice doctorates. The authors assume readers may not have a formal background in the philosophy of science, and write in a conversational tone with a minimum of difficult terminology. They discuss the current state of DNP education in a way that can foster discourse and debate." Score: 97, 5 Stars. --Doody’s Medical Reviews Tailored for both DNP and PhD doctoral nursing programs, this text is the first to focus on philosophy of science applications to the discipline of nursing. The authors, a philosopher and a nurse-scholar who co-teach the course upon which this volume is based, address a growing need for increased philosophy of science content in evolving DNP programs, as well as practice-oriented research considerations for this discipline. The volume presents a creative use of the social, political, and historical content in which nursing has evolved. As a whole, this extremely important text reassures the student of the fluid and palpable connections between philosophy of science and nursing science and practice. Key Features: Explores the concept of nursing as a practice profession and assesses how much philosophy of science is needed for doctoral nursing students. Examines the practical application of the philosophy of science to both DNP and PhD students. Addresses the basic principles and concepts of the philosophy of science and their practical application for contemporary practice inquiry. Provides an overview of the century-long path to the development of nursing science that is an essential "bridge" to the philosophy of science content and serves as a "next step" towards building a nursing epistemology Reinforces important connections between the philosophy of science to nursing science and nursing practice.

An Introduction to Philosophical Methods

Author: Christopher Daly

Publisher: Broadview Press

ISBN: 1460401174

Category: Philosophy

Page: 258

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An Introduction to Philosophical Methods is the first book to survey the various methods that philosophers use to support their views. Rigorous yet accessible, the book introduces and illustrates the methodological considerations that are involved in current philosophical debates. Where there is controversy, the book presents the case for each side, but highlights where the key difficulties with them lie. While eminently student-friendly, the book makes an important contribution to the debate regarding the acceptability of the various philosophical methods, and so it will also be of interest to more experienced philosophers.