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The prime numbers appear to be distributed in a very irregular way amongst the integers, but the prime number theorem provides a simple formula that tells us (in an approximate but well-defined sense) how many primes we can expect to find that are less than any integer we might choose. This is indisputably one of the the great classical theorems of mathematics. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduates, this textbook demonstrates how the tools of analysis can be used in number theory to attack a famous problem.

Bridges the gap between theoretical and computational aspects of prime numbers Exercise sections are a goldmine of interesting examples, pointers to the literature and potential research projects Authors are well-known and highly-regarded in the field

Der große Roman einer unerfüllten Liebe Ein einziger Tag in ihrer Kindheit entscheidet über ihr Schicksal: An diesem Tag verliert Alice das Vertrauen in ihren Vater und ihre Lebenslust. Mattia hingegen verliert seine Schwester, als er sie nur ein Mal aus den Augen lässt. Jahre später lernen Mattia und Alice einander kennen. Sie scheinen füreinander bestimmt zu sein. Doch das Leben legt ihnen Hindernisse in den Weg.

Originally published in 1934, this volume presents the theory of the distribution of the prime numbers in the series of natural numbers. Despite being long out of print, it remains unsurpassed as an introduction to the field.

Loo-Keng Hua was a master mathematician, best known for his work using analytic methods in number theory. In particular, Hua is remembered for his contributions to Waring's Problem and his estimates of trigonometric sums. Additive Theory of Prime Numbers is an exposition of the classic methods as well as Hua's own techniques, many of which have now also become classic. An essential starting point is Vinogradov's mean-value theorem for trigonometric sums, which Hua usefully rephrases and improves. Hua states a generalized version of the Waring-Goldbach problem and gives asymptotic formulas for the number of solutions in Waring's Problem when the monomial $x^k$ is replaced by an arbitrary polynomial of degree $k$. The book is an excellent entry point for readers interested in additive number theory. It will also be of value to those interested in the development of the now classic methods of the subject.

'" Prime Numbers, Friends Who Give Problems is written as a trialogue, with two persons who are interested in prime numbers asking the author, Papa Paulo, intelligent questions. Starting at a very elementary level, the book advances steadily, covering all important topics of the theory of prime numbers, up to the most famous problems. The humorous conversations and the inclusion of a back-story add to the uniqueness of the book. Concepts and results are also explained with great care, making the book accessible to a wide audience. Contents:What are Prime Numbers?Division is Harder than MultiplicationAnother Paulo! Is a Dialogue of Three Possible?How Natural Numbers are Made Out of PrimesTell Me Which is the Largest Prime?Trying Hard to Find PrimesA Formula, A Formula, PleasePaulo Came with a LassoBeautiful Old Elementary ArithmeticThe Old Man Still KnowsCan You Tell Me All About Congruences?Homework CheckedTesting for Primality and FactorizationFermat Numbers are Friendly. Are They Primes?This World is PerfectUnfriendly Numbers from a Friend of Fermat''sPaying My DebtMoney and PrimesSecret MessagesNew Numbers and FunctionsPrinceps GaussGathering ForcesThe After "Math" of GaussPrimes After Dinner: Bad Dreams?Primes in Arithmetic ProgressionSelling PrimesThe Great Prime MysteriesMysteries in Sequences: More But Not AllThe End and the Beginning Readership: College students, high school teachers and beginners interested in number theory and important facts about prime numbers. "'

In the modern age of almost universal computer usage, practically every individual in a technologically developed society has routine access to the most up-to-date cryptographic technology that exists, the so-called RSA public-key cryptosystem. A major component of this system is the factorization of large numbers into their primes. Thus an ancient number-theory concept now plays a crucial role in communication among millions of people who may have little or no knowledge of even elementary mathematics. The independent structure of each chapter of the book makes it highly readable for a wide variety of mathematicians, students of applied number theory, and others interested in both study and research in number theory and cryptography.

Delving deeply into the mystery of prime numbers, this fascinating treatment of an ancient mathematical dilemma looks at Pythagorian mysticism, Goldbach's Conjecture, Fibonacci numbers, and Mersenne primes, among other related topics.

Is there any link between the doctrine of logical fatalism and prime numbers? What do logic and prime numbers have in common? The book adopts truth-functional approach to examine functional properties of finite-valued Łukasiewicz logics Łn+1. Prime numbers are defined in algebraic-logical terms (Finn's theorem) and represented as rooted trees. The author designs an algorithm which for every prime number n constructs a rooted tree where nodes are natural numbers and n is a root. Finite-valued logics Kn+1 are specified that they have tautologies if and only if n is a prime number. It is discovered that Kn+1 have the same functional properties as Łn+1 whenever n is a prime number. Thus, Kn+1 are 'logics' of prime numbers. Amazingly, combination of logics of prime numbers led to uncovering a law of generation of classes of prime numbers. Along with characterization of prime numbers author also gives characterization, in terms of Łukasiewicz logical matrices, of powers of primes, odd numbers, and even numbers.

One notable new direction this century in the study of primes has been the influx of ideas from probability. The goal of this book is to provide insights into the prime numbers and to describe how a sequence so tautly determined can incorporate such a striking amount of randomness. The book opens with some classic topics of number theory. It ends with a discussion of some of the outstanding conjectures in number theory. In between are an excellent chapter on the stochastic properties of primes and a walk through an elementary proof of the Prime Number Theorem. This book is suitable for anyone who has had a little number theory and some advanced calculus involving estimates. Its engaging style and invigorating point of view will make refreshing reading for advanced undergraduates through research mathematicians.

In this book the author treats four fundamental and apparently simple problems. They are: the number of primes below a given limit, the ap proximate number of primes, the recognition of prime numbers and the factorization of large numbers. A chapter on the details of the distribution of the primes is included as well as a short description of a recent applica tion of prime numbers, the so-called RSA public-key cryptosystem. The author is also giving explicit algorithms and computer programs. Whilst not claiming completeness, the author has tried to give all important results known, including the latest discoveries. The use of computers has in this area promoted a development which has enormously enlarged the wealth of results known and that has made many older works and tables obsolete. As is often the case in number theory, the problems posed are easy to understand but the solutions are theoretically advanced. Since this text is aimed at the mathematically inclined layman, as well as at the more advanced student, not all of the proofs of the results given in this book are shown. Bibliographical references in these cases serve those readers who wish to probe deeper. References to recent original works are also given for those who wish to pursue some topic further. Since number theory is seldom taught in basic mathematics courses, the author has appended six sections containing all the algebra and number theory required for the main body of the book.

From the Era of Helmut Maier's Matrix Method and Beyond

Author: János Pintz,Michael Th. Rassias

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319927779

Category: Mathematics

Page: 217

View: 2668

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This volume presents research and expository papers highlighting the vibrant and fascinating study of irregularities in the distribution of primes. Written by an international group of experts, contributions present a self-contained yet unified exploration of a rapidly progressing area. Emphasis is given to the research inspired by Maier’s matrix method, which established a newfound understanding of the distribution of primes. Additionally, the book provides an historical overview of a large body of research in analytic number theory and approximation theory. The papers published within are intended as reference tools for graduate students and researchers in mathematics.

In 2013, a little known mathematician in his late 50s stunned the mathematical community with a breakthrough on an age-old problem about prime numbers. Since then, there has been further dramatic progress on the problem, thanks to the efforts of a large-scale online collaborative effort of a type that would have been unthinkable in mathematics a couple of decades ago, and the insight and creativity of a young mathematician at the start of his career. Prime numbers have intrigued, inspired and infuriated mathematicians for millennia. Every school student studies prime numbers and can appreciate their beauty, and yet mathematicians' difficulty with answering some seemingly simple questions about them reveals the depth and subtlety of prime numbers. Vicky Neale charts the recent progress towards proving the famous Twin Primes Conjecture, and the very different ways in which the breakthroughs have been made: a solo mathematician working in isolation and obscurity, and a large collaboration that is more public than any previous collaborative effort in mathematics and that reveals much about how mathematicians go about their work. Interleaved with this story are highlights from a significantly older tale, going back two thousand years and more, of mathematicians' efforts to comprehend the beauty and unlock the mysteries of the prime numbers.

A prime number is inherently a solitary thing: it can only be divided by itself, or by one; it never truly fits with another. Alice and Mattia also move on their own axes, alone with their personal tragedies. As a child Alice's overbearing father drove her first to a terrible skiing accident, and then to anorexia. When she meets Mattia she recognises a kindred spirit, and Mattia reveals to Alice his terrible secret: that as a boy he abandoned his mentally-disabled twin sister in a park to go to a party, and when he returned, she was nowhere to be found. These two irreversible episodes mark Alice and Mattia's lives for ever, and as they grow into adulthood their destinies seem irrevocably intertwined. But then a chance sighting of a woman who could be Mattia's sister forces a lifetime of secret emotion to the surface. A meditation on loneliness and love, The Solitude of Prime Numbers asks, can we ever truly be whole when we're in love with another?

Come take a journey of exploration and discovery into the underworld of complexity, searching for simple understanding of our world and everything in it! Author Philip Gervase Jackson’s search for answers started at the age of five and within two years he was debating things others routinely took for granted. As an adult, Mr. Jackson used his new, evolving observations to develop a wonderfully powerful problem-solving method that helped him make discoveries in many different fields including mathematics and software design. As he applied the critical thinking skills he had nurtured, he realized that this problem-solving method is indeed universal - it can be applied to anything. Simplicity Instinct: Why Prime Numbers are Elusive! is a how-to book that shares all the opportunities provided by this method. Life often presents hurdles and barriers, but the search for deeper understanding will win over, every time.