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An introduction to the basic tools of the theory of (partially) ordered sets such as visualization via diagrams, subsets, homomorphisms, important order-theoretical constructions and classes of ordered sets. Using a thematic approach, the author presents open or recently solved problems to motivate the development of constructions and investigations for new classes of ordered sets. The text can be used as a focused follow-up or companion to a first proof (set theory and relations) or graph theory course.

What is a number? What is infinity? What is continuity? What is order? Answers to these fundamental questions obtained by late nineteenth-century mathematicians such as Dedekind and Cantor gave birth to set theory. This textbook presents classical set theory in an intuitive but concrete manner. To allow flexibility of topic selection in courses, the book is organized into four relatively independent parts with distinct mathematical flavors. Part I begins with the Dedekind–Peano axioms and ends with the construction of the real numbers. The core Cantor–Dedekind theory of cardinals, orders, and ordinals appears in Part II. Part III focuses on the real continuum. Finally, foundational issues and formal axioms are introduced in Part IV. Each part ends with a postscript chapter discussing topics beyond the scope of the main text, ranging from philosophical remarks to glimpses into landmark results of modern set theory such as the resolution of Lusin's problems on projective sets using determinacy of infinite games and large cardinals. Separating the metamathematical issues into an optional fourth part at the end makes this textbook suitable for students interested in any field of mathematics, not just for those planning to specialize in logic or foundations. There is enough material in the text for a year-long course at the upper-undergraduate level. For shorter one-semester or one-quarter courses, a variety of arrangements of topics are possible. The book will be a useful resource for both experts working in a relevant or adjacent area and beginners wanting to learn set theory via self-study.

This text unites logical and philosophical aspects of set theory in a manner intelligible to mathematicians without training in formal logic and to logicians without a mathematical background. 1961 edition.

The study of random sets is a large and rapidly growing area with connections to many areas of mathematics and applications in widely varying disciplines, from economics and decision theory to biostatistics and image analysis. The drawback to such diversity is that the research reports are scattered throughout the literature, with the result that in science and engineering, and even in the statistics community, the topic is not well known and much of the enormous potential of random sets remains untapped. An Introduction to Random Sets provides a friendly but solid initiation into the theory of random sets. It builds the foundation for studying random set data, which, viewed as imprecise or incomplete observations, are ubiquitous in today's technological society. The author, widely known for his best-selling A First Course in Fuzzy Logic text as well as his pioneering work in random sets, explores motivations, such as coarse data analysis and uncertainty analysis in intelligent systems, for studying random sets as stochastic models. Other topics include random closed sets, related uncertainty measures, the Choquet integral, the convergence of capacity functionals, and the statistical framework for set-valued observations. An abundance of examples and exercises reinforce the concepts discussed. Designed as a textbook for a course at the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level, this book will serve equally well for self-study and as a reference for researchers in fields such as statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science.

This book eases students into the rigors of university mathematics. The emphasis is on understanding and constructing proofs and writing clear mathematics. The author achieves this by exploring set theory, combinatorics, and number theory, topics that include many fundamental ideas and may not be a part of a young mathematician's toolkit. This material illustrates how familiar ideas can be formulated rigorously, provides examples demonstrating a wide range of basic methods of proof, and includes some of the all-time-great classic proofs. The book presents mathematics as a continually developing subject. Material meeting the needs of readers from a wide range of backgrounds is included. The over 250 problems include questions to interest and challenge the most able student but also plenty of routine exercises to help familiarize the reader with the basic ideas.

"The Pedrycz and Gomide text is superb in all respects. Its exposition of fuzzy-neural networks and fuzzy-genetic systems adds much to its value as a textbook" -- Lotfi A. Zadeh, University of California, Berkeley. The concept of fuzzy sets is one of the most fundamental and influential tools in computational intelligence. Fuzzy sets can provide solutions to a broad range of problems of control, pattern classification, reasoning, planning, and computer vision. This book bridges the gap that has developed between theory and practice. The authors explain what fuzzy sets are, why they work, when they should be used (and when they shouldn't), and how to design systems using them. The authors take an unusual top-down approach to the design of detailed algorithms. They begin with illustrative examples, explain the fundamental theory and design methodologies, and then present more advanced case studies dealing with practical tasks. While they use mathematics to introduce concepts, they ground them in examples of real-world problems that can be solved through fuzzy set technology. The only mathematics prerequisites are a basic knowledge of introductory calculus and linear algebra.

Learn how to develop your reasoning skills and how to writewell-reasoned proofs Learning to Reason shows you how to use the basic elements ofmathematical language to develop highly sophisticated, logicalreasoning skills. You'll get clear, concise, easy-to-followinstructions on the process of writing proofs, including thenecessary reasoning techniques and syntax for constructingwell-written arguments. Through in-depth coverage of logic, sets,and relations, Learning to Reason offers a meaningful, integratedview of modern mathematics, cuts through confusing terms and ideas,and provides a much-needed bridge to advanced work in mathematicsas well as computer science. Original, inspiring, and designed formaximum comprehension, this remarkable book: * Clearly explains how to write compound sentences in equivalentforms and use them in valid arguments * Presents simple techniques on how to structure your thinking andwriting to form well-reasoned proofs * Reinforces these techniques through a survey of sets--thebuilding blocks of mathematics * Examines the fundamental types of relations, which is "where theaction is" in mathematics * Provides relevant examples and class-tested exercises designed tomaximize the learning experience * Includes a mind-building game/exercise space atwww.wiley.com/products/subject/mathematics/

An Introduction to Abstract Mathematics, Third Edition

Author: Keith Devlin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482286025

Category: Mathematics

Page: 160

View: 3944

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Keith Devlin. You know him. You've read his columns in MAA Online, you've heard him on the radio, and you've seen his popular mathematics books. In between all those activities and his own research, he's been hard at work revising Sets, Functions and Logic, his standard-setting text that has smoothed the road to pure mathematics for legions of undergraduate students. Now in its third edition, Devlin has fully reworked the book to reflect a new generation. The narrative is more lively and less textbook-like. Remarks and asides link the topics presented to the real world of students' experience. The chapter on complex numbers and the discussion of formal symbolic logic are gone in favor of more exercises, and a new introductory chapter on the nature of mathematics--one that motivates readers and sets the stage for the challenges that lie ahead. Students crossing the bridge from calculus to higher mathematics need and deserve all the help they can get. Sets, Functions, and Logic, Third Edition is an affordable little book that all of your transition-course students not only can afford, but will actually read...and enjoy...and learn from. About the Author Dr. Keith Devlin is Executive Director of Stanford University's Center for the Study of Language and Information and a Consulting Professor of Mathematics at Stanford. He has written 23 books, one interactive book on CD-ROM, and over 70 published research articles. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a World Economic Forum Fellow, and a former member of the Mathematical Sciences Education Board of the National Academy of Sciences,. Dr. Devlin is also one of the world's leading popularizers of mathematics. Known as "The Math Guy" on NPR's Weekend Edition, he is a frequent contributor to other local and national radio and TV shows in the US and Britain, writes a monthly column for the Web journal MAA Online, and regularly writes on mathematics and computers for the British newspaper The Guardian.

While most texts on real analysis are content to assume the real numbers, or to treat them only briefly, this text makes a serious study of the real number system and the issues it brings to light. Analysis needs the real numbers to model the line, and to support the concepts of continuity and measure. But these seemingly simple requirements lead to deep issues of set theory—uncountability, the axiom of choice, and large cardinals. In fact, virtually all the concepts of infinite set theory are needed for a proper understanding of the real numbers, and hence of analysis itself. By focusing on the set-theoretic aspects of analysis, this text makes the best of two worlds: it combines a down-to-earth introduction to set theory with an exposition of the essence of analysis—the study of infinite processes on the real numbers. It is intended for senior undergraduates, but it will also be attractive to graduate students and professional mathematicians who, until now, have been content to "assume" the real numbers. Its prerequisites are calculus and basic mathematics. Mathematical history is woven into the text, explaining how the concepts of real number and infinity developed to meet the needs of analysis from ancient times to the late twentieth century. This rich presentation of history, along with a background of proofs, examples, exercises, and explanatory remarks, will help motivate the reader. The material covered includes classic topics from both set theory and real analysis courses, such as countable and uncountable sets, countable ordinals, the continuum problem, the Cantor–Schröder–Bernstein theorem, continuous functions, uniform convergence, Zorn's lemma, Borel sets, Baire functions, Lebesgue measure, and Riemann integrable functions.

An Introduction to the Point-set and Algebraic Areas

Author: Donald W. Kahn

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486686097

Category: Mathematics

Page: 217

View: 445

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Comprehensive coverage of elementary general topology as well as algebraic topology, specifically 2-manifolds, covering spaces and fundamental groups. Problems, with selected solutions. Bibliography. 1975 edition.

This book is an excellent starting point for any curriculum in fuzzy systems fields such as computer science, mathematics, business/economics and engineering. It covers the basics leading to: fuzzy clustering, fuzzy pattern recognition, fuzzy database, fuzzy image processing, soft computing, fuzzy applications in operations research, fuzzy decision making, fuzzy rule based systems, fuzzy systems modeling, fuzzy mathematics. It is not a book designed for researchers - it is where you really learn the "basics" needed for any of the above-mentioned applications. It includes many figures and problem sets at the end of sections.

Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics, Volume 102: Set Theory: An Introduction to Independence Proofs offers an introduction to relative consistency proofs in axiomatic set theory, including combinatorics, sets, trees, and forcing. The book first tackles the foundations of set theory and infinitary combinatorics. Discussions focus on the Suslin problem, Martin's axiom, almost disjoint and quasi-disjoint sets, trees, extensionality and comprehension, relations, functions, and well-ordering, ordinals, cardinals, and real numbers. The manuscript then ponders on well-founded sets and easy consistency proofs, including relativization, absoluteness, reflection theorems, properties of well-founded sets, and induction and recursion on well-founded relations. The publication examines constructible sets, forcing, and iterated forcing. Topics include Easton forcing, general iterated forcing, Cohen model, forcing with partial functions of larger cardinality, forcing with finite partial functions, and general extensions. The manuscript is a dependable source of information for mathematicians and researchers interested in set theory.

This text introduces topos theory, a development in category theory that unites important but seemingly diverse notions from algebraic geometry, set theory, and intuitionistic logic. Topics include local set theories, fundamental properties of toposes, sheaves, local-valued sets, and natural and real numbers in local set theories. 1988 edition.

Facts101 is your complete guide to Fundamentals of Mathematics, An Introduction to Proofs, Logic, Sets, and Numbers. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.

By its nature, set theory does not depend on any previous mathematical knowl edge. Hence, an individual wanting to read this book can best find out if he is ready to do so by trying to read the first ten or twenty pages of Chapter 1. As a textbook, the book can serve for a course at the junior or senior level. If a course covers only some of the chapters, the author hopes that the student will read the rest himself in the next year or two. Set theory has always been a sub ject which people find pleasant to study at least partly by themselves. Chapters 1-7, or perhaps 1-8, present the core of the subject. (Chapter 8 is a short, easy discussion of the axiom of regularity). Even a hurried course should try to cover most of this core (of which more is said below). Chapter 9 presents the logic needed for a fully axiomatic set th~ory and especially for independence or consistency results. Chapter 10 gives von Neumann's proof of the relative consistency of the regularity axiom and three similar related results. Von Neumann's 'inner model' proof is easy to grasp and yet it prepares one for the famous and more difficult work of GOdel and Cohen, which are the main topics of any book or course in set theory at the next level.

Inverse limits with set-valued functions are quickly becoming a popular topic of research due to their potential applications in dynamical systems and economics. This brief provides a concise introduction dedicated specifically to such inverse limits. The theory is presented along with detailed examples which form the distinguishing feature of this work. The major differences between the theory of inverse limits with mappings and the theory with set-valued functions are featured prominently in this book in a positive light. The reader is assumed to have taken a senior level course in analysis and a basic course in topology. Advanced undergraduate and graduate students, and researchers working in this area will find this brief useful.