Counter-Terrorism and State Political Violence

The 'war on Terror' as Terror

Author: Scott Poynting

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415607205

Category: History

Page: 252

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This edited volume aims to deepen our understanding of state power through a series of case studies of political violence arising from state ‘counter-terrorism’ strategies. The book examines how state counter-terrorism strategies are invariably underpinned by terror, in the form of state political violence. It seeks to answer three key questions: To what extent can counter-terror strategies be read as a form of state terror? How fundamental is state terror to the maintenance of a neo-liberal social order? What are the features of counter-terrorism that render it so easily reducible to state terror? In order to explore these issues, and to reach an understanding of what it means to say that the ‘war on terror’ is terror , the contributing authors draw upon case studies from a range of geographical contexts including the UK and Northern Ireland, the US and Colombia, and Sri Lanka and Tamil Eelam. Analysing these case studies from a psychological-warfare and hegemonic perspective, the book also includes two chapters from Noam Chomsky and John Pilger, which provide a global and historical context. This book will be of great interest to students of critical terrorism studies, political violence, war and conflict studies, sociology, international security and IR.

Terrorism and Political Violence

Author: Caroline Kennedy-Pipe,Gordon Clubb,Simon Mabon

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1473917220

Category: Political Science

Page: 328

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This book introduces you to the key issues in contemporary studies on Terrorism. Its interdisciplinary approach provides a unique intellectual rigour which introduces readers to cutting-edge research. Bringing together chapters contributed by members of the Terrorism and Political Violence Association network, it offers an insight into a variety of traditional and critical perspectives. It also equips Undergraduate and Postgraduate students with the study skills needed to succeed in coursework and assignments, especially dissertation work. Drawing on the expertise of TAPVA members, this book: Explores contemporary issues, such as drone warfare, state violence, children and political violence, cyber-terrorism and de-radicalisation. Features case studies drawn from a range of international examples, lists of further reading, key concepts and questions for use in seminars and private study. Provides you with study skills content designed to help you complete your dissertation. This is the perfect textbook to guide you through your studies in terrorism, political violence, international security and strategic studies.

Understanding Terrorism and Political Violence

The Life Cycle of Birth, Growth, Transformation, and Demise

Author: Dipak K. Gupta

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135982813

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

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This book explains the lifecycle of terrorist organizations from an innovative theoretical perspective, combining economics with social psychology. It provides a new approach to understanding human behaviour in organized society, and then uses this to analyze the forces shaping the lifecycle of violent political movements. Economic and rational-choice theorists assume that human beings are motivated only by self-utility, yet terrorism is ultimately an altruistic act in the eyes of its participants. This book highlights the importance of the desire to belong to a group as a motivating factor, and argues that all of us face an eternal trade-off between selfishness and community concern. This hypothesis is explored through four key groups; the IRA in Northern Ireland, Al Qaeda, Hamas, and the Naxalites in India. Through this, the book analyzes the birth, growth, transformation and demise of violent political movements, and ends with an analysis of the conditions which determine the outcome of the war against terrorism. Understanding Terrorism and Political Violence will be essential reading for advanced students of terrorism studies and political science, and of great interest to students of social psychology and sociology.

Violent Geographies

Fear, Terror, and Political Violence

Author: Derek Gregory,Allan Pred

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113592905X

Category: Political Science

Page: 416

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"Violent Geographies is essential to understanding how the politics of fear, terror, and violence in being largely hidden geographically can only be exposed in like manner. The 'War on Terror' finally receives the coolly critical analysis its ritual invocation has long required." —John Agnew, Professor of Geography, UCLA "Urgent, passionate and deeply humane, Violent Geographies is uncomfortable but utterly compelling reading. An essential guide to a world splintered and wounded by fear and aggression—this is geography at its most politically engaged, historically sensitive, and intellectually brave." —Ben Highmore, University of Sussex "This is what a ‘public geography’ should be all about: acute analysis of momentous issues of our time in an accessible language. Gregory and Pred have assembled a peerless group of critical geographers whose essays alter conventional understandings of terror, violence, and fear. No mere gazetteer, Violent Geographies shows how place, space and landscape are central components of the real and imagined practices that constitute organised violence past and present. If you thought terror, violence, and fear were the professional preserve of security analysts and foreign affairs experts this book will force you to think again." —Noel Castree, School of Environment and Development, Manchester University "A studied, passionate and moving examination of the way in which the violent logics of the ‘War on Terror’ have so quickly shuttered and reorganized the spaces of this planet on its different scales. From the book emerges a critical new cartography that clearly charts an archipelago of a large multiplicity of ‘wild’ and ‘tamed’ places as well as ‘black holes’ within and between which we all struggle to live." —Eyal Weizman, Director, Goldsmiths College Centre for Research Architecture

Extreme Right Wing Political Violence and Terrorism

Author: Max Taylor,P.M. Currie,Donald Holbrook

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1441140875

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

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In this collection, senior experts explore all aspects of extreme right wing political violence, from the nature of the threat, processes of engagement, and ideology to the lessons that can be drawn from exiting such engagement. Further, right wing activism and political violence are compared with Jihadi violence and engagement. Also, the European experience is placed within a greater framework, including that of the United States and the Arab Spring. The book opens with an essay on U.S. far right groups, investigating their origins and processes of recruitment. It then delves into violence against UK Mosques and Islamic centers, the relationship between Ulster loyalism and far right extremism, the Dutch extremist landscape, and the July 2011 Norway attacks. Also discussed are how narratives of violence are built and justified, at what point do individuals join into violence, and how differently states respond to left-wing vs. right-wing extremism. This comparative work offers a unique look into the very nature of right wing extremism and will be a must-read for anyone studying political violence and terrorism

Terrorist Histories

Individuals and Political Violence since the 19th Century

Author: Caoimhe Nic Dhaibheid

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317199030

Category: Political Science

Page: 260

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This book addresses provides a series of in-depth portraits of men and women who have been labelled ‘terrorists’, from the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries. Bridging historical methodologies and theoretical approaches to terrorism studies, it seeks to contribute to the developing historicising of terrorism studies. This is achieved principally through a prosopographical approach. In the preponderance of detailed statistical and quantitative data on the practice of terrorism and political violence, the individuals who participate in terrorist acts are often obscured. While ideologies and organisations have attracted much scholarly interest, less is known of the personal trajectories into political violence, particularly from a historical perspective. The focus on a relatively narrow cast of high-profile terrorist ‘villains’, to a large part driven by popular and media attention, results in a somewhat skewed picture; of equal value, arguably, is a more sustained reflection on the lives of lesser-known individuals. The book sits at the juncture between terrorism studies, historical biography and ethnography. It comprises case studies of ten individuals who have engaged in political violence in the nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first centuries, in a number of locations and with a variety of ideological motivations, from Russian-inflected anarchism to Islamist extremism. Through detailed empirical research, crucial themes in the study of terrorism and political violence are explored: the diverse individual radicalisation pathways, the question of disengagement and re-engagement, various counter-terrorist and counter-insurgency strategies adopted by governments and security forces, and the changing nature and perception of terrorism over time. Although not explicitly comparative, a number of themes resonate between the case studies, which will be drawn together in the conclusion to this book. These include the role of migration in radicalisation, the influence of radical family heritages, the experience of imprisonment and the narratives which individuals construct to tell their own terrorist life-stories. It also provides an historically grounded answer to one of the most contentious and heated debates in recent literature on terrorism studies: ‘what leads a person to turn to political violence?’ In examining the life-narratives of a diverse range of men and women who at some point embraced violence, this book seeks to contribute to a growing understanding of the entire arc of a terrorist lifespan, from radicalisation to mobilisation, to disengagement and beyond. This book will be of much interest to students of political violence, terrorism studies, security studies and politics in general.

Lone Wolf and Autonomous Cell Terrorism

Author: Jeffrey Kaplan,Heléne Lööw,Leena Malkki

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317530438

Category: History

Page: 272

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President Obama has declared that the greatest terrorist threat which America faces is attacks by lone wolf terrorists. This volume expands the lone wolf rubric to include autonomous cells: small groups of terrorists who cooperate, but operate independently. The challenge presented by lone wolves and autonomous cells, unlike the threat emanating from established terrorist groups like Al Qaeda, has proven intractable because of the difficulty of gathering intelligence on these actors or effectively countering their actions. Lone wolves operate under the radar, staging deadly attacks such as that at the Boston Marathon, and the 2011 attacks in Norway. This volume includes Theory and Policy Studies, individual case studies and the technological impacts of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons as well as the impact of social media in the process of recruitment and radicalization. This book was originally published as a special issue of Terrorism & Political Violence.

Conceptualizing Terrorism

Author: Anthony Richards

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191063983

Category: Political Science

Page: 168

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Conceptualizing Terrorism argues that, in the post 9/11 world, the need for an internationally agreed definition of terrorism is more important than it has ever been, despite the challenges that such an endeavour presents. Indeed, in a global context, where the term is often applied selectively and pejoratively according to where one's interests lie, there is a real need to instill some analytical quality into the concept of terrorism, not least in order to prevent the term being manipulated to justify all manner of counter-terrorism responses. Not only is this important for the policymaking context but it is also an imperative task within academia - in order to strengthen the theoretical foundation of terrorism studies, for all other terrorism related theories rest on what one means by terrorism in the first place. Written from an academic perspective, the book explores the prospects for terrorism as an analytical concept. Arguing that the essence of this particular form of political violence lies in its intent to generate a psychological impact beyond the immediate victims, it goes on to propose the adoption of three key preliminary assumptions that have implications for the definitional debate and that it suggests might help to increase the analytical potential of terrorism. The book then considers potential elements of a definition before concluding with its own conceptualization of terrorism.

How Terrorism Is Wrong

Morality and Political Violence

Author: Virginia Held

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199716227

Category: Philosophy

Page: 224

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What is terrorism? How is it different from other kinds of political violence? Why exactly is it wrong? Why is war often thought capable of being justified? On what grounds should we judge when the use of violence is morally acceptable? It is often thought that using violence to uphold and enforce the rule of law can be justified, that violence used in self-defense is acceptable, and that some liberation movements can be excused for using violence--but that terrorism is always wrong. How persuasive are these arguments, and on what bases should we judge them? How Terrorism is Wrong collects articles by Virginia Held along with much new material. It offers a moral assessment of various forms of political violence, with terrorism the focus of much of the discussion. Here and throughout, Held examines possible causes discussed, including the connection between terrorism and humiliation. Held also considers military intervention, conventional war, intervention to protect human rights, violence to prevent political change, and the status and requirements of international law. She looks at the cases of Rwanda, Kosovo, Iraq, and the Israeli/Palestinian conflict. Finally, she explores questions of who has legitimate authority to engage in justifiable uses of violence, whether groups can be responsible for ethnic violence, and how the media should cover terrorism. Held discusses appropriate ways of engaging in moral evaluation and improving our moral recommendations concerning the uses of violence. Just war theory has been developed for violence between the military forces of conflicting states, but much contemporary political violence is not of this kind. Held considers the guidance offered by such traditional moral theories as Kantian ethics and utilitarianism, and also examines what the newer approach of the ethics of care can contribute to our evaluations of violence. Care is obviously antithetical to violence since violence destroys what care takes pains to build; but the ethics of care recognizes that violence is not likely to disappear from human affairs, and can offer realistic understandings of how best to reduce it.

Understanding Violent Radicalisation

Terrorist and Jihadist Movements in Europe

Author: Magnus Ranstorp

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135260419

Category: History

Page: 280

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This is the first book to address in depth the interplay between radicalisation and political violence in Europe, as well as the effectiveness of counter-measures. As evidenced from the multitude of intercepted plots across several European cities since 2001, the threat level and the intensity of the desire to perpetrate mass-casualty attacks within Europe is not diminishing. While violent radicalization has gradually moved to the top of the EU counterterrorism agenda, it has been accompanied by a relatively embryonic understanding about the processes and interplay of factors that contribute to radicalization, which are played out differently in cities like Paris, Rome, London and Copenhagen. Undoubtedly, there are common factors at the global and regional levels that facilitate radicalization, but it is also clear that radicalization is very context dependent. This book provides crucial insights into different ways to understand violent radicalization within national contexts and the challenges addressing the many pathways into terrorism inspired by al-Qaeda and other forms of Islamic extremism. This book will be of great interest to students of terrorism studies and political violence, counter-terrorism, EU politics, security studies and IR in general. Magnus Ranstorp is Research Director of the Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies at the Swedish National Defence College and a Member of EU Expert Groups on (Violent) Radicalisation. He has twenty years of experience in research on counterterrorism issues and testified at the 9/11 Commission Hearing.

Terrorism and the State

Intra-state Dynamics and the Response to Non-State Political Violence

Author: Kieran McConaghy

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137572671

Category: Political Science

Page: 246

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This book investigates the ways in which the particular nature and character of the state can impact upon the effectiveness of counter-terrorism efforts, and on the trajectory of violent conflicts. Here, McConaghy not only analyses historical campaigns of terrorism and the response of states to them, but also highlights how factors such as emotion, intra-state cooperation, communication and competition have all served to shape conflicts in the past. This volume explains what the ramifications of these factors are for academics studying political violence, for state elites with counter-terrorism responsibility, and for individuals or organizations who use violence to achieve their political goals.

Terrorism and Global Disorder

Political Violence in the Contemporary World

Author: Adrian Guelke

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 0857717340

Category: Political Science

Page: 296

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A valuable study of the nature and development of terrorism in all its forms in the late 20th and early 21st centuries._x000D_ Powerfully argued and thought-provoking, Terrorism and Global Disorder examines whether the world changed as a result of the events of 11 September 2001. It argues that the significance of the assault on America has been overstated and that terrorism with a global reach is best seen as a consequence of other, more fundamental changes. The author contends that the development and global outreach of terrorism stem from the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the superpower hegemony, aided by the spread of international technology and communications. He also examines the consequences of the political exploitation of terrorism and underlines the dangers created by the politicization of counter-terrorism for partisan purposes._x000D_ _x000D_ Above all, this stimulating book attempts to place terrorism - now a word full of nuance and meaning and denoting a phenomenon which occupies so much government time and money - within the context of history and current affairs. It is an important contribution to the ongoing debate about the causes and nature of terrorism._x000D_

Terrorism, Political Violence, and Extremism: New Psychology to Understand, Face, and Defuse the Threat

Author: Chris E. Stout Ph.D.

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 144085193X

Category: Psychology

Page: 357

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A must-read for psychologists—clinical and academic alike—as well as for political scientists, policy analysts, and others working in the realm of terrorism, political violence, and extremism, this book carefully explores the theories, observations, and approaches of authorities in the field and addresses how and why terrorism has perpetuated for so long. • Addresses how various groups are affected by terrorism, including children, older adults, and, arguably more relevant than ever before, refugees • Tackles the perplexing question of why terrorism has remained such a difficult problem to overcome • Includes contributions from Islamic subject matter expert, scholar, and author Dr. Sayed Ammar Nakshawani, listed among The 500 Most Influential Muslims • Serves as appropriate reading for students taking courses in subjects ranging from international psychology, military psychology and theory, political science, and political theory to religious studies, peace studies, military sciences, law enforcement, social work, feminist theory, public health, sociology, and anthropology

Failed States and the Origins of Violence

A Comparative Analysis of State Failure as a Root Cause of Terrorism and Political Violence

Author: Dr Tiffiany Howard

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1472417828

Category: Political Science

Page: 222

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What makes a terrorist? Is an individual inherently predisposed to be attracted to political violence or does exposure to a certain environment desensitize them in such a way that violence represents a viable mode for addressing political grievances? Identifying state failure as the impetus for political violence this book addresses these questions and focuses on why existing extremist groups find failed states so attractive. Utilizing global barometer data, Tiffiany Howard examines the underpinnings of individual support for political violence and argues that an insidious pattern of deprivation within failed states drives ordinary citizens to engage in and support extreme acts of political violence. A rigorous examination of four regions plagued by a combination of failed states and political violence-Sub Saharan Africa, The Middle East and North Africa, Southeast and South Asia, and Latin America-this text draws parallels to arrive at a single conclusion: that failed states are a natural breeding ground for terrorism and political violence.

Turning to Political Violence

The Emergence of Terrorism

Author: Marc Sageman

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812248775

Category: Political Science

Page: 520

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Counterterrorism consultant Marc Sageman examines the history and theory of political violence in his comprehensive new book. Seeking patterns across numerous key case studies, Turning to Political Violence offers a paradigm-shifting perspective that yields stark new implications for how liberal democracies should respond to terrorism.

Walking Away from Terrorism

Accounts of Disengagement from Radical and Extremist Movements

Author: Director International Center for the Study of Terrorism and Associate Professor of Psychology John Horgan, JR,John Horgan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135285489

Category: History

Page: 216

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This accessible new book looks at how and why individuals leave terrorist movements, and considers the lessons and implications that emerge from this process. Focusing on the tipping points for disengagement from groups such as Al Qaeda, the IRA and the UVF, this volume is informed by the dramatic and sometimes extraordinary accounts that the terrorists themselves offered to the author about why they left terrorism behind. The book examines three major issues: what we currently know about de-radicalisation and disengagement how discussions with terrorists about their experiences of disengagement can show how exit routes come about, and how they then fare as ‘ex-terrorists’ away from the structures that protected them what the implications of these findings are for law-enforcement officers, policy-makers and civil society on a global scale. Concluding with a series of thought-provoking yet controversial suggestions for future efforts at controlling terrorist behaviour, Walking Away From Terrorism provides an comprehensive introduction to disengagement and de-radicalisation and offers policymakers a series of considerations for the development of counter-radicalization and de-radicalisation processes. This book will be essential reading for students of terrorism and political violence, war and conflict studies, security studies and political psychology. John Horgan is Director of the International Center for the Study of Terrorism at the Pennsylvania State University. He is one of the world's leading experts on terrorist psychology, and has authored over 50 publications in this field; recent books include the The Psychology of Terrorism (Routledge 2005) and Leaving Terrorism Behind (co-edited, Routledge 2008)

An International History of Terrorism

Western and Non-Western Experiences

Author: Jussi M. Hanhimäki,Bernhard Blumenau

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415635403

Category: History

Page: 318

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The aim of this book is to provide readers with the tools to understand the historical evolution of terrorism and counterterrorism over the past 150 years. In order to appreciate the contemporary challenges posed by terrorism it is necessary to look at its evolution, at the different phases it has gone through, and the transformations it has experienced. The same applies to the solutions that states have come up with to combat terrorism: the nature of terrorism changes but still it is possible to learn from past experiences even though they are not directly applicable to the present. This book provides a fresh look at the history of terrorism by providing in-depth analysis of several important terrorist crises and the reactions to them in the West and beyond. The general framework is laid out in four parts: terrorism prior to the Cold War, the Western experience with terrorism, non-Western experiences with terrorism, and contemporary terrorism and anti-terrorism. The issues covered offer a broad range of historical and current themes, many of which have been neglected in existing scholarship; it also features a chapter on the waves phenomenon of terrorism against its international background. This book will be of much interest to students of terrorism studies, political violence, international history, security studies and IR.

Political Violence and Terrorism in Modern America

A Chronology

Author: Christopher Hewitt

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780313334184

Category: History

Page: 199

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Presents a timeline of events of political violence in the United States, begining with a Puerto Rican nationalists' shooting in Washington on March 1st, 1954 up to environmentalists setting a supply company building on fire on June 15, 2004.

Terrorism Versus Democracy

The Liberal State Response

Author: Paul Wilkinson

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1136835466

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

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This book examines the terrorist networks that operate globally and analyses the long-term future of terrorism and terrorist-backed insurgencies. Terrorism remains a serious problem for the international community. The global picture does not indicate that the ‘war on terror’, which President George W. Bush declared in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, has been won. On the other hand it would be incorrect to assume that Al Qaeda, its affiliates and other jihadi groups have won their so-called ‘holy war’ against the Coalition against Terrorism formed after 9/11. This new edition gives more attention to the political and strategic impact of modern transnational terrorism, the need for maximum international cooperation by law-abiding states to counter not only direct threats to the safety and security of their own citizens but also to preserve international peace and security through strengthening counter-proliferation and cooperative threat reduction (CTR). This book is essential reading for undergraduate and postgraduate students of terrorism studies, political science and international relations, as well as for policy makers and journalists.

The Psychology of Terrorism

Author: John G. Horgan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134701497

Category: Political Science

Page: 184

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This new edition of John Horgan's critically acclaimed book is fully revised and expanded. The book presents a critical analysis of our existing knowledge and understanding of terrorist psychology. Despite the on-going search for a terrorist pathology, the most insightful and evidence-based research to date not only illustrates the lack of any identifiable psychopathology in terrorists, but demonstrates how frighteningly 'normal' and unremarkable in psychological terms are those who engage in terrorist activity. By producing a clearer map of the processes that impinge upon the individual terrorist, a different type of terrorist psychology emerges, one which has clearer implications for efforts at countering and disrupting violent extremism in today's world. In this 2nd edition, Horgan further develops his approach to the arc of terrorism by delving deeper into his IED model of Involvement, Engagement and Disengagement – the three phases of terrorism experienced by every single terrorist. Drawing on new and exciting research from the past decade, with new details from interviews with terrorists ranging from al-Qaeda to left-wing revolutionaries, biographies and autobiographies of former terrorists, and insights from historic and contemporary terrorist attacks since 2005, Horgan presents a fully revised and expanded edition of his signature text. This new edition of The Psychology of Terrorism will be essential reading for students of terrorism and political violence, and counterterrorism studies, and recommended for forensic psychology, criminology, international security and IR in general.