The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids

The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Committee on the Health Effects of Marijuana: An Evidence Review and Research Agenda

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309453046

Category: Science

Page: 486

View: 789

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Significant changes have taken place in the policy landscape surrounding cannabis legalization, production, and use. During the past 20 years, 25 states and the District of Columbia have legalized cannabis and/or cannabidiol (a component of cannabis) for medical conditions or retail sales at the state level and 4 states have legalized both the medical and recreational use of cannabis. These landmark changes in policy have impacted cannabis use patterns and perceived levels of risk. However, despite this changing landscape, evidence regarding the short- and long-term health effects of cannabis use remains elusive. While a myriad of studies have examined cannabis use in all its various forms, often these research conclusions are not appropriately synthesized, translated for, or communicated to policy makers, health care providers, state health officials, or other stakeholders who have been charged with influencing and enacting policies, procedures, and laws related to cannabis use. Unlike other controlled substances such as alcohol or tobacco, no accepted standards for safe use or appropriate dose are available to help guide individuals as they make choices regarding the issues of if, when, where, and how to use cannabis safely and, in regard to therapeutic uses, effectively. Shifting public sentiment, conflicting and impeded scientific research, and legislative battles have fueled the debate about what, if any, harms or benefits can be attributed to the use of cannabis or its derivatives, and this lack of aggregated knowledge has broad public health implications. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids provides a comprehensive review of scientific evidence related to the health effects and potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis. This report provides a research agendaâ€"outlining gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for providing additional insight into these issuesâ€"that summarizes and prioritizes pressing research needs.

The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids

The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Committee on the Health Effects of Marijuana: An Evidence Review and Research Agenda

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309453070

Category: Science

Page: 486

View: 4093

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Significant changes have taken place in the policy landscape surrounding cannabis legalization, production, and use. During the past 20 years, 25 states and the District of Columbia have legalized cannabis and/or cannabidiol (a component of cannabis) for medical conditions or retail sales at the state level and 4 states have legalized both the medical and recreational use of cannabis. These landmark changes in policy have impacted cannabis use patterns and perceived levels of risk. However, despite this changing landscape, evidence regarding the short- and long-term health effects of cannabis use remains elusive. While a myriad of studies have examined cannabis use in all its various forms, often these research conclusions are not appropriately synthesized, translated for, or communicated to policy makers, health care providers, state health officials, or other stakeholders who have been charged with influencing and enacting policies, procedures, and laws related to cannabis use. Unlike other controlled substances such as alcohol or tobacco, no accepted standards for safe use or appropriate dose are available to help guide individuals as they make choices regarding the issues of if, when, where, and how to use cannabis safely and, in regard to therapeutic uses, effectively. Shifting public sentiment, conflicting and impeded scientific research, and legislative battles have fueled the debate about what, if any, harms or benefits can be attributed to the use of cannabis or its derivatives, and this lack of aggregated knowledge has broad public health implications. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids provides a comprehensive review of scientific evidence related to the health effects and potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis. This report provides a research agendaâ€"outlining gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for providing additional insight into these issuesâ€"that summarizes and prioritizes pressing research needs.

The Health Effects of Cannabis

Author: Harold Kalant,Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

Publisher: Addiction Research Foundation

ISBN: 9780888683250

Category: Medical

Page: 526

View: 1474

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The Health Effects of Cannabis is a definitive reference text on the adverse, and also the potentially beneficial, effects of cannabis use. Internationally recognized experts in the field contribute a wealth of information about the use and effects of Canada's most widely used illicit drug. The Health Effects of Cannabis will be of interest to addiction medicine specialists, educators, researchers, health program managers and policy-makers, and anyone else who wants scientific information on cannabis and its effects. Topics include: the epidemiology of cannabis use and related problems the long-term central nervous system effects of cannabis mental and behavioural disorders caused by cannabis use cannabis and immunity cannabis use during pregnancy therapeutic uses of cannabis and cannabinoids the health and psychological effects of cannabis use the comparative risks of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and opioid use.

Marijuana and the Cannabinoids

Author: Mahmoud A. ElSohly

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592599478

Category: Medical

Page: 322

View: 4274

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Although primarily used today as one of the most prevalent illicit leisure drugs, the use of Cannabis sativa L., commonly referred to as marijuana, for medicinal purposes has been reported for more than 5000 years. Marijuana use has been shown to create numerous health problems, and, consequently, the expanding use beyond medical purposes into recreational use (abuse) resulted in control of the drug through international treaties. Much research has been carried out over the past few decades following the identification of the chemical structure of THC in 1964. The purpose of Marijuana and the Cannabinoids is to present in a single volume the comprehensive knowledge and experience of renowned researchers and scientists. Each chapter is written independently by an expert in his/her field of endeavor, ranging from the botany, the constituents, the chemistry and pharmacokinetics, the effects and consequences of illicit use on the human body, to the therapeutic potential of the cannabinoids.

Cannabis and Cannabinoids

Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential

Author: Ethan B Russo

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136614931

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 478

View: 3210

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Study the latest research findings by international experts! This comprehensive volume presents state-of-the-art scientific research on the therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives. All too often, discussions of the potential medical uses of this substance are distorted by political considerations that have no place in a medical debate. Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential features fair, equitable discussion of this emerging and controversial medical topic by the world’s foremost researchers. Cannabis and Cannabinoids examines the benefits, drawbacks, and side effects of medical marijuana as a treatment for various conditions and diseases. This book discusses the scientific basis for marijuana’s use in cases of pain, nausea, anorexia, and cachexia. It also explores its possible benefits in glaucoma, ischemia, spastic disorders, and migraine. Cannabis and Cannabinoids examines all facets of the medical use of marijuana, including: botany history biochemistry pharmacology clinical use toxicology side effects Cannabis and Cannabinoids is a reference work that will become indispensable to physicians, psychologists, researchers, biochemists, graduate students, and interested members of the public. No other book available offers this comprehensive, even-handed look at a deeply divisive subject.

Marijuana and Medicine:

Assessing the Science Base

Author: Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309071550

Category: Medical

Page: 288

View: 1717

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The medical use of marijuana is surrounded by a cloud of social, political, and religious controversy, which obscures the facts that should be considered in the debate. This book summarizes what we know about marijuana from evidence-based medicine--the harm it may do and the relief it may bring to patients. The book helps the reader understand not only what science has to say about medical marijuana but also the logic behind the scientific conclusions. Marijuana and Medicine addresses the science base and the therapeutic effects of marijuana use for medical conditions such as glaucoma and multiple sclerosis. It covers marijuana's mechanism of action, acute and chronic effects on health and behavior, potential adverse effects, efficacy of different delivery systems, analysis of the data about marijuana as a gateway drug, and the prospects for developing cannabinoid drugs. The book evaluates how well marijuana meets accepted standards for medicine and considers the conclusions of other blue-ribbon panels. Full of useful facts, this volume will be important to anyone interested in informed debate about the medical use of marijuana: advocates and opponents as well as policymakers, regulators, and health care providers.

The Health and Social Effects of Nonmedical Cannabis Use

Author: World Health Organization

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789241510240

Category: Medical

Page: 95

View: 6545

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Cannabis is globally the most commonly used psychoactive substance under international control. In 2013, an estimated 181.8 million people aged 15-64 years used cannabis for nonmedical purposes globally (UNODC, 2015). There is an increasing demand for treatment for cannabis-use disorders and associated health conditions in high- and middle-income countries. This report focuses on nonmedical use of cannabis, building on contributions from a broad range of experts and researchers from different parts of the world. It aims to present current knowledge on the impact of nonmedical cannabis use on health, from its impact on brain development to its role in respiratory diseases. The potential medical utility of cannabis -- including the pharmacology, toxicology and possible therapeutic applications of the cannabis plant -- is outside the scope of this report.

The Benefits of Marijuana

Physical, Psychological and Spiritual

Author: Joan Bello

Publisher: Lifeservices Press

ISBN: 096609882X

Category: Marijuana

Page: 192

View: 8015

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A well written, concise holistic explanation of the physical, psychological & spiritual benefits to be derived from the employment of marijuana. This book offers proof that marijuana balances the Autonomic Nervous System which is the goal for health and consciousness in Yoga Science. The Benefits of Mairjuana bridges the gap between the ancient Eastern wisdom - so popular in contemporary self-help circles - and today's extensive science. According to the reviews: "It's the sort of book you can dip into at random, absorbing nonconsecutive sections at your leisure." The final edition of the book includes a thorough explanation of how marijuana helps the victims of PTSD and Alzheimer's Disease and presents an impressive argument for the dire need of the consciousness-raising features of marijuana for stress reduction, health and collectively, for survival. According to the former Director of NORML, "one of the most well written, comprehensive analysis of marijuana around today."

Cannabis Pharmacy

The Practical Guide to Medical Marijuana -- Revised and Updated

Author: Michael Backes

Publisher: Black Dog & Leventhal

ISBN: 031655572X

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 320

View: 5602

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In Cannabis Pharmacy, expert Michael Backes offers evidence-based information on using cannabis to treat an array of ailments and conditions. He provides information on how cannabis works with the body's own system, how best to prepare and administer it, and how to modify and control dosage. This newly revised edition is now completely up-to-date with the latest information on the body's encannabinoid system, which is now understood to control emotion, appetite, and memory, delivery and dosing of cannabis, including e-cigarette designs, additional varietals, and a new system for classification, as well as 21 additional ailments and conditions that can be treated with medical marijuana. There are currently more than 4.2 million medical cannabis patients in the United States, and there are 29 states plus the District of Columbia where medical cannabis is legal.

Marijuana and Mental Health

Author: Michael T. Compton, M.D., M.P.H.

Publisher: American Psychiatric Pub

ISBN: 1615370080

Category: Medical

Page: 272

View: 1517

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With relatable clinical vignettes that illustrate the applicability of each chapter’s content, as well as key chapter points that summarize major themes, Marijuana and Mental Health is the definitive, single source of comprehensive information on marijuana and mental health in modern American society. Balanced, focused, and highly readable, chapters address topics such as the effects of marijuana on the brain and mind, marijuana-related policy and legislation, the complex link between marijuana use and psychotic disorders, synthetic cannabinoids, and the treatment and prevention of marijuana misuse. Beyond offering clinical and research psychiatrists, psychiatric residents and fellows, clinical psychologists, and psychiatric nurses a comprehensive but concise compilation of research in this area, this reference informs clinical mental health practice as well as policy decisions by articulating the connection between marijuana and mental health, particularly in the United States.

Marijuana As Medicine?:

The Science Beyond the Controversy

Author: Alison Mack,Institute of Medicine,Janet Joy

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309065313

Category: Medical

Page: 216

View: 3830

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Some people suffer from chronic, debilitating disorders for which no conventional treatment brings relief. Can marijuana ease their symptoms? Would it be breaking the law to turn to marijuana as a medication? There are few sources of objective, scientifically sound advice for people in this situation. Most books about marijuana and medicine attempt to promote the views of advocates or opponents. To fill the gap between these extremes, authors Alison Mack and Janet Joy have extracted critical findings from a recent Institute of Medicine study on this important issue, interpreting them for a general audience. Marijuana As Medicine? provides patients--as well as the people who care for them--with a foundation for making decisions about their own health care. This empowering volume examines several key points, including: Whether marijuana can relieve a variety of symptoms, including pain, muscle spasticity, nausea, and appetite loss. The dangers of smoking marijuana, as well as the effects of its active chemical components on the immune system and on psychological health. The potential use of marijuana-based medications on symptoms of AIDS, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and several other specific disorders, in comparison with existing treatments. Marijuana As Medicine? introduces readers to the active compounds in marijuana. These include the principal ingredient in Marinol, a legal medication. The authors also discuss the prospects for developing other drugs derived from marijuana's active ingredients. In addition to providing an up-to-date review of the science behind the medical marijuana debate, Mack and Joy also answer common questions about the legal status of marijuana, explaining the conflict between state and federal law regarding its medical use. Intended primarily as an aid to patients and caregivers, this book objectively presents critical information so that it can be used to make responsible health care decisions. Marijuana As Medicine? will also be a valuable resource for policymakers, health care providers, patient counselors, medical faculty and students--in short, anyone who wants to learn more about this important issue.

The Science of Marijuana

Author: Leslie L. Iversen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199795987

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 296

View: 9213

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In The Science of Marijuana Leslie Iversen explains the remarkable advances that have been made in scientific research on cannabis with the discovery of specific receptors and the existence of naturally occurring cannabis-like substances in the brain. Dr. Iversen provides an objective and up-to-date assessment of the scientific basis for the medical use of cannabis and what risks this may entail. The recreational use of the drug and how it affects users is described along with some predictions about how attitudes to cannabis may change in the future.

Stoned

A Doctor's Case for Medical Marijuana

Author: David J. Casarett

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1591847672

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 289

View: 9703

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A physician's exploration of the odd science of marijuana, and the industry that's sprung up around it. If you're diagnosed with a serious illness today, there's one thing you can look forward to: the ability to get stoned on legal, pharmaceutical-grade marijuana. The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in medical marijuana use, abetted by a new industry of farmers, distributors, manufacturers, and clinics that have created a need. But does pot really offer the medical benefits that its proponents promise? Or does it just make people feel good? Dr. David Casarett, a highly respected researcher and professor of medicine, sets out to find answers firsthand. He visits dispensaries in California and Colorado; smears marijuana paste on his legs while trekking through Nepal; samples pot wine; learns how vaporizers work; and tries the purest kind of hash, known as ?shatter.” The result is a light-hearted and much-needed medical practitioner's perspective on what marijuana is really good for, and whether the dangers outweigh the benefits.

Cannabinoids and the Brain

Author: Linda Parker

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262035790

Category: Medical

Page: 248

View: 5519

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A review of the scientific evidence on the effects of cannabinoids on brain and behavioral functioning, with an emphasis on potential therapeutic use.

Marijuana Gateway to Health

How Cannabis Protects Us from Cancer and Alzheimer's Disease

Author: Clint Werner

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780983426189

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 232

View: 2366

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"Learn how ingesting cannabinoids, the unique compounds found in the cannabis plant, can protect your health. Research reveals that: longterm marijuana smokers have a reduced risk for developing lung cancer ; the cannabinoid THC suppressed a variety of cancers and higher doses led to greated protection and longer life ; THC is effective for reducing the brain damage associated with Alzheimer's disease ; cannabinoids stimulate the production of healthy new brain cells."--Back cover.

Marijuana and Madness

Author: David Castle,Robin M. Murray,Deepak Cyril D'Souza

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139502670

Category: Medical

Page: N.A

View: 9784

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The second edition of this critically acclaimed and award-winning text provides a comprehensive overview of the psychiatry and neuroscience of Cannabis sativa (marijuana). It outlines the very latest developments in our understanding of the human cannabinoid system, and links this knowledge to clinical and epidemiological facts about the impact of cannabis on mental health. Clinically focused chapters review not only the direct psychomimetic properties of cannabis, but also the impact consumption has on the courses of evolving or established mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Effects of cannabis on mood are reviewed, as are its effects on cognition. This new edition has been extensively updated and expanded with 10 new chapters to incorporate major new research findings. This book will be of interest to all members of the mental health team, as well as to neuroscientists, epidemiologists, public health specialists and those involved in drug and alcohol research.

The Complex Connection between Cannabis and Schizophrenia

Author: Michael T. Compton,Marc Manseau

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128051833

Category: Science

Page: 362

View: 9168

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The Complex Connections between Cannabis and Schizophrenia provides an in-depth overview of the current state of research into the role that cannabis plays in schizophrenia, covering both the pathophysiological and the pharmacological implications. It addresses the epidemiology of cannabis use and the risks associated with its use, the biological aspects of the drug, its effects on the brain and the pharmacological possibilities of using cannabidiol to treat schizophrenia. It is the only book on the market devoted exclusively to examining the links between this very commonly used (and misused) drug and a specific set of devastating psychiatric illnesses, providing a comprehensive guide to our current understandings of this relationship. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug globally, and is becoming increasingly decriminalized and even legalized worldwide. Among the numerous mental-health concerns related to the drug, there is mounting evidence of an intricate link between cannabis use and schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. At the same time, there is promising evidence to suggest that cannabidiol, one of the many compounds found in cannabis that activates the brain’s cannabinoid receptors, could prove to be an effective antipsychotic to treat schizophrenia. Synthesizes existing knowledge about the confusing, but crucial, relationship between cannabis use and schizophrenia symptoms Provides a comprehensive overview of the neurobiological mechanisms of cannabis use and its effects on the brain, including an exploration of the endocannabinoid system Examines the promising evidence suggesting cannabidiol as an effective antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia Aids readers studying the neurobiological underpinning of cannabis addiction and psychosis in determining directions for their own future research

The Cannabis Health Index

Combining the Science of Medical Marijuana with Mindfulness Techniques To Heal 100 Chronic Symptoms and Diseases

Author: Uwe Blesching

Publisher: North Atlantic Books

ISBN: 1583949631

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 660

View: 1520

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This comprehensive sourcebook combines evidence-based insights from more than 1,000 studies from cannabinoid and consciousness research to present a convincing case for the powerful healing effects of medical marijuana on over 100 chronic symptoms and diseases. Written by a former paramedic with a PhD in alternative healthcare, this in-depth reference shows that the subtle shifts in awareness commonly observed in cannabis-using patients vastly contribute to these compounds' therapeutic potential. The Cannabis Health Index is organized into condition-specific chapters, with eye-catching ratings of cannabis efficacy for each symptom, along with recommendations for use, and sidebars that suggest related mindfulness-based practices that enhance the body's own ability to heal. Organized alphabetically from aging to wound care, with sections on a variety of conditions including infections, cancer, cardiovascular health, eye diseases, inflammatory diseases, neurological diseases, and much more, the Index reveals that the huge body of scientific studies focused on cannabis is a tremendously under-utilized repository of knowledge. In synthesizing the findings of these studies, Blesching brings clarity to the process of making informed decisions about cannabis as a valid treatment. Informative, user-friendly, and practical, The Cannabis Health Index presents striking evidence that cannabis is remarkable safe and effective when used within the proper therapeutic window, especially compared with the risks of managing chronic symptoms with pharmaceuticals.

Cannabinoids in Neurologic and Mental Disease

Author: Liana Fattore

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0124171249

Category: Medical

Page: 496

View: 5457

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The application of cannabis sativa for the treatment of neurologic and mental disease is expanding. Cannabinoids in Neurologic and Mental Disease collects and presents for the first time recent research involving the use of pharmacological cannabinoids for the treatment of neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disease. The neurologic application of cannabinoid therapy builds upon psychiatric and psychological use for the treatment of a variety of core mental disorders. This comprehensive reference on the known uses of cannabinoids will be useful for clinical neurologists, neuroscience and clinical neuroscience researchers, clinical psychologists and psychiatrists and the general medical community. A comprehensive reference on the clinical uses of cannabinoids for treating major neurologic and mental diseases Detailed coverage of cannabinoid use for neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disease including Multiple Sclerosis, Epilepsy, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease Detailed coverage of cannabinoid use for major psychiatric and psychological diseases and disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, Tourette's syndrome, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Handbook of Cannabis

Author: Roger G. Pertwee

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199662681

Category: Medical

Page: 747

View: 5144

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Truly global in scope and with contributions from leading researchers around the world, The Handbook of Cannabis is the definitive resource on this fascinating drug. Combining scientific perspectives and clinical applications, it covers a vast array of topics, from why over the centuries cannabis has been used as a medicine, through the regulations facing those wishing to self-administer cannabis or provide cannabis-based medicines, to the chemical structure ofits many constituents and the rapidly growing group of synthetic cannabinoids that are currently being used for 'legal highs'.The Handbook of Cannabis is a one-stop reference; essentialreading for all clinicians, pharmacologists, psychologists, and psychiatrists interested in this drug, as well as those working in the field of public health.