The Regulation of International Trade

4th Edition

Author: Michael Trebilcock,Robert Howse,Antonia Eliason

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136291768

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 912

View: 388

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Drawing on a wide variety of classic and contemporary sources, respected authors Trebilcock and Howse here provide a critical analysis of the institutions and agreements that have shaped international trade rules. In light of the growing debate over globalization, they include special sections examinations of topics such as: * agriculture * services and trade-related intellectual property rights * labor rights * the environment * migration. *competition Drawing on previous highly praised editions, this comprehensive text is an invaluable guide to students of economics, law, politics and international relations. Now fully updated, this fourth edition includes full coverage of new developments including the Doha trade round, the proliferation of preferential trade agreements, the debate on trade, climate change and green energy, the response of the trading system to the 2007-2010 financial and economic crisis, the controversy over trade and exchange rate manipulation, and the growing body of WTO dispute resolution case law.

The Regulation of International Trade

The Wto Agreements on Trade in Goods

Author: Petros C. Mavroidis

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262029995

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 888

View: 2385

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The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) has extended its institutional arsenal since the Kennedy round in the early 1960s. The current institutional design is the outcome of the Uruguay round and agreements reached in the ongoing Doha round (begun in 2001). One of the institutional outgrowths of GATT is the World Trade Organization (WT0), created in 1995. In this book, Petros Mavroidis offers a detailed examination of WTO agreements regulating trade in goods, discussing legal context, policy background, economic rationale, and case law. Each chapter examines a given legal norm and its subsequent practice. In particular, he discusses agreements dealing with customs clearance; "contingent protection" instruments, which allow WTO members unilaterally to add to the negotiated amount of protection when a certain contingency (for example, dumping) has occurred; TBT (Technical Barriers to Trade) and SPS (Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary Measures) agreements, both of which deal with such domestic instruments as environmental, health policy, or consumer information; the agreement on Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIM); sector-specific agreements on agriculture and textiles; plurilateral agreements (binding a subset of WTO membership) on government procurement and civil aviation; and transparency in trade relations. This book's companion volume examines the GATT regime for international trade.

The Regulation of International Trade

GATT

Author: Petros C. Mavroidis

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262333902

Category: Law

Page: 648

View: 4642

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The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was created alongside other towering achievements of the post-World War II era, including the United Nations, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund. GATT, the first successful agreement to generate multilateral trade liberalization, became the principal institution to administer international trade for the next six decades. In this book, Petros Mavoidis offers detailed examination of the GATT regime for international trade, discussing the negotiating record, policy background, economic rationale, and case law. Mavroidis offers a substantive first chapter that provides a detailed historical background to GATT that stretches from the 1927 World Economic Conference through Bretton Woods and the Atlantic Charter. Each of the following chapters examines the disciplines agreed to, their negotiating record, their economic rationale, and subsequent practice. Mavroidis focuses on cases that have influenced the prevailing understanding of the norm, as well as on literature that has contributed to its interpretation, and the final outcome. In particular, he examines quantitative restrictions and tariffs; the most favored nation clause (MFN), the cornerstone of the GATT edifice; preferential trade agreements and special treatment for products originating in developing countries; domestic instruments; and exceptions to the obligations assumed under GATT. This book's companion volume examines World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements regulating trade in goods.

The WTO and the Regulation of International Trade

Recent Trade Disputes Between the European Union and the United States

Author: Nicholas Perdikis,Robert Read,International Economics Study Group

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9781781958490

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 295

View: 5303

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'The book is an excellent introduction to understanding the principal trade disputes between the United States and EU over the last decade and a half.' - International Trade Law and Regulation This book provides a critical overview and assessment of the WTO's dispute settlement procedures in the context of several recent trade-related disputes between the EU and the US.

Regulation of Energy in International Trade Law

WTO, NAFTA, and Energy Charter

Author: Julia Selivanova

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 9041132643

Category: Law

Page: 416

View: 6607

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Starting from the premise that a multilateral legal framework is the surest way to achieve predictability and transparency under conditions of increasing reliance on internationally traded energy, the essays gathered in this book treat the many complex interlocking issues raised by examining that desideratum in the light of current reality. Concentrating on the application of WTO agreements to energy trade - as well as energy-related issues addressed in the current WTO negotiations - the authors offer in-depth discussion and analysis of such issues as the following: the effectiveness of existing WTO agreements in addressing issues pertinent to energy trade how restrictive practices of energy endowed countries can be tackled under existing international trade rules; existing frameworks for investment in highly capital-intensive energy infrastructure projects;and conditions for access to pipelines and transmission grids; regulation of energy services; bioenergy development and trade; energy issues addressed in the WTO accession negotiations of energy endowed countries; international instruments of resolution of energy-related disputes.

International Trade Regulation in China

Law and Policy

Author: Xin Zhang

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847311385

Category: Law

Page: 400

View: 1651

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This book presents a comprehensive survey of Chinese legal and regulatory systems governing international trade following China's accession to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and the coming into force of the revised PRC Foreign Trade Law. It provides a systematic and in-depth analysis on the text of applicable Chinese laws and rules,with a particular focus on their practical application. It also critically explores whether international trade regulation in China complies with the WTO Agreement both in the text and in spirit and identifies areas where improvements by Chinese trade regulators would be desirable.The book starts with an analysis of basic issues of international trade regulation in China. Part II, covers foreign trading rights, trade restrictions and prohibitions, licensing and quotas, customs regulation, health, safety and technical standards, and trade in technology. Part III discusses trade protection and remedies available under PRC law, in the form of anti-dumping law, anti-subsidy law, safeguarding measures and trade retaliation. Part IV explores new regulatory issues, including trade promotion, trade and competition, trade and IP rights protection, and resolution of trade disputes. The book combines analysis with detailed practical advice and will be of interest to academics, practitioners and policy makers.

Optimal Regulation and the Law of International Trade

The Interface between the Right to Regulate and WTO Law

Author: Boris Rigod

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316453774

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 8806

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Are the limitations imposed on World Trade Organization (WTO) members' right to regulate efficient? This is a question that is only scarcely, if ever, analysed in existing literature. Boris Rigod aims to provide an answer to this fundamental concern. Using the tools of economic analysis and in particular the concept of economic efficiency as a benchmark, the author states that domestic regulatory measures should only be subject to scrutiny by WTO bodies when they cause negative international externalities through terms of trade manipulations. He then suggests that WTO law, applied by the WTO judiciary can prevent WTO members from attaining optimal levels of regulation. By applying a law and economics methodology, Rigod provides an innovative solution to the problem of how to reconcile members' regulatory autonomy and WTO rules as well as offering a novel analytical framework for assessing domestic regulations in the light of WTO law.

The EU, the WTO and China

Legal Pluralism and International Trade Regulation

Author: Francis Snyder

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847315992

Category: Law

Page: 533

View: 2656

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This book presents a new theoretical framework for understanding the regulation of international trade. For this purpose, it analyses a series of integrated studies of relations between the EU, the WTO and China. It consists of three main parts. Part I introduces the basic concepts. It surveys the literature on law and globalisation, introduces the concept of sites of governance and the theory of global legal pluralism and sketches the foundations of global legal pluralism. It shows that each site of governance has both a structural dimension, consisting of institutions, norms and dispute resolution processes, and a relational dimension, comprising its relations with other sites of governance. The totality of sites of governance constitutes a new form of global legal pluralism. Part II analyses global legal pluralism in action in relations between the EU, the WTO and China. It examines the construction of relations between sites, ways in which relations between sites give rise to new legal concepts or transform the character of rules, the tension between regionalism and international integration and the governance of international production networks. It emphasises the reciprocal interaction between the structural features and the relational features of sites. Part III explores new directions in global legal pluralism. It first analyses regional trade agreements as a way of creating new sites of governance, focusing on agreements involving China. Then it considers how to enhance ethical values in international trade regulation. Based on an institutional analysis of relations between the WTO and other sites of governance, it proposes ways in which global legal pluralism can be used to reform the WTO, today the predominant institution in the regulation of international trade, including trade between the EU and China.

Regulation of Foreign Investment

Challenges to International Harmonization

Author: Zdenek Drabek,Petros Mavroidis

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814401633

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 512

View: 7815

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The main aim of this book is to assess the importance of international rules for foreign direct investment and the major challenges to international harmonization of those rules. Particular attention is paid to the most controversial and contentious issues with the view of appraising the prospects for establishing global rules. The book is divided into three parts; the first part includes papers assessing the role of national and international legislation with further distinction being made between bilateral, regional and multilateral legal frameworks. The second part addresses regulatory issues of technology transfer, labor, environment, subsidies and investment incentives, national security, public services and sovereign wealth funds. The final part looks at the experience of some international fora in addressing these issues and at some theoretical and conceptual problems of rule harmonization. The papers have been written by legal and economic scholars from leading universities. Contents:Introduction (Zdenek Drabek and Petros C Mavroidis)Regulation of Investment in the Trade Régime: From ITO to WTO (Petros C Mavroidis)Domestic, Regional and Multilateral Investment Liberalization (Jorge A Huerta Goldman)Mode 3 of the GATS: A Model for Disciplining Measures Affecting Investment Flows? (Bart De Meester and Dominic Coppens)Labor Standards and Human Rights: Implications for International Trade and Investment (Drusilla K Brown, Alan V Deardorff and Robert M Stern)Interactions Between Subsidies Regulation and Foreign Investment, and the Primacy of the International Trade Regime (Tomer Broude)Environmental Protection (Daniel M Firger and Michael B Gerrard)Technology Transfer: Regulatory Issues and International Investment Agreements (Keith E Maskus)Sovereign Wealth Funds and Political Risk: New Challenges in the Regulation of Foreign Investment (Victoria Barbary and Bernardo Bortolotti)International Tribunals as Agents of Harmonization (Moshe Hirsch)Foreign Acquisitions and National Security: What are Genuine Threats? Whatare Implausible Worries? (Theodore H Moran)Public Services, Investment Liberalization and Protection (Federico Ortino)The EU Approach to Investment (Americo Beviglia Zampetti and Colin Brown)Harmonization of Rules on Foreign Investment (Zdenek Drabek) Readership: Policy makers, negotiators, business councils, NGOs, legal profession (international trade and investment law), economic profession (academics). Keywords:Harmonization;Regulation;Foreign Investment;International EconomicsKey Features:Treatment of “new generation” issues such as human rights or sovereign wealth fundsTreatment of highly controversial issues of harmonization including subsidies, public services and technology transfer or the actual choice whether to harmonize or notAnalysis provided by top international scholarsReviews: “The remarkable collection of papers assembled by Drabek and Mavoridis succeeds both in identifying and explaining in clear terms the most salient questions in the regulation of foreign investment today… The diversity of themes covered in this book make it essential reading for anyone interested in an accessible overview of the latest developments in the regulation of foreign investment.” J. World Trade Review

Balancing Human Rights, Environmental Protection and International Trade

Lessons from the EU Experience

Author: Emily Reid

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1782252525

Category: Law

Page: 272

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This book explores the means by which economic liberalisation can be reconciled with human rights and environmental protection in the regulation of international trade. It is primarily concerned with identifying the lessons the international community can learn, specifically in the context of the WTO, from decades of European Community and Union experience in facing this question. The book demonstrates first that it is possible to reconcile the pursuit of economic and non-economic interests, that the EU has found a mechanism by which to do so, and that the application of the principle of proportionality is fundamental to the realisation of this. It is argued that the EU approach can be characterised as a practical application of the principle of sustainable development. Secondly, from the analysis of the EU experience, this book identifies fundamental conditions crucial to achieving this 'reconciliation'. Thirdly, the book explores the implications of lessons from the EU experience for the international community. In so doing it assesses both the potential and limits of the existing international regulatory framework for such reconciliation. The book develops a deeper understanding of the inter-relationship between the legal regulation of economic and non-economic development, adding clarity to the debate in a controversial area. It argues that a more holistic approach to the consideration of 'development', encompassing economic and non-economic concerns - 'sustainable' development - is not only desirable in principle but realisable in practice.

The Oxford Handbook of International Trade Law

Author: Daniel L. Bethlehem

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199231923

Category: Law

Page: 801

View: 5251

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The Oxford Handbook of International Trade Law explores the law of the World Trade Organization and its broader context. It examines the discipline of international trade law itself and also the outside face of international trade law and its intersection with states and with other aspects of the international system. It covers the economic and institutional context of the world trading system, the substantive law of the WTO, the WTO dispute settlement system,and the interaction between trade and other disciplines and fields of international law.

Gatt, Wto and the Regulation of International Trade in Textiles

Author: CLAUDIA JIMENEZ. CORTES

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781138315013

Category:

Page: 305

View: 2715

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Published in 1997, in this book an attempt has been made to analyze the legal structure of GATT and the WTO as well as those agreements which control trade in textiles. One of the GATT's major failures was its inability to come into line with the new economic reality and the needs of those states who created this system for controlling international trade. Trade in textiles was an excellent example of this. Now, the WTO aims to overcome this problem thanks to its greater pragmatism and its search for solutions to free trade difficulties. The WTO is not, however, the perfect solution. Its highly political character allows room for improvement even though the key to its success still lies with the effective cooperation of member states. As for the textile sector, this new panorama for trade in goods provides it with a new opportunity to finally return to the general legal framework in the year 2005.

Banking Regulation and World Trade Law

GATS, EU and Prudential Institution Building

Author: Lazaros E. Panourgias

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847311814

Category: Law

Page: 312

View: 7158

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Banking Regulation and World Trade Law concerns the legal aspects of the interaction between banking regulation and international trade in financial services. The author studies the internal banking market of the European Union, the liberalisation of financial services trade in the World Trade Organization, the accords of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and the European Central Bank. The book focuses on the balancing between banking regulation and international trade law. It discusses discrimination and proportionality in national banking regulation, the allocation of prudential regulation and supervision between home and host country, and international financial law-making. The author questions decentralised/nation-based banking regulation and supervision as a foundation for a sustainable liberalisation of international trade in financial services. The book considers various reforms of the international financial architecture, such as the incorporation of the Basel processes and accords into the WTO system, and the setting up of new international institutions by building on the Basel Committees or the IMF structures. The role of central banking in designing the international financial architecture is also explored: the book reviews the ECB's competence over foreign exchange policy and its function as lender of last resort, and treats price stability, banking soundness and representation as critical concepts. The analysis also reveals that the concept of 'prudential', despite its extensive use in banking regulation, has not been defined with adequate precision. In seeking to delineate the interface between international economic law and banking regulation, Dr Panourgias builds on the rich European scholarship on institutional financial issues and the US interdisciplinary approach to world trade law. He also entertains the notion of international financial law as a distinct field. The book will be of particular interest to those concerned with financial law and international banking.

The Prospects of International Trade Regulation

From Fragmentation to Coherence

Author: Thomas Cottier,Panagiotis Delimatsis

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139501259

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 6996

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For a long time, the GATT led a life of its own as a self-contained regime. The evolution from tariff to non-tariff barriers brought about increasing overlaps with other regulatory areas. WTO rules increasingly interface with other areas of law and policy, including environmental protection, agricultural policies, labour standards, investment, human rights and regional integration. Against this backdrop, this book examines fragmentation in international trade regulation across a wide array of regulatory fields. To this end, it uses a conceptually coherent theoretical framework which is based on the effort to bring about greater coherence among different policy goals and fields, and thus to embed the multilateral trading system within the broader framework of international economics, law and relations. It will appeal to those interested in a forward-looking discussion of the most pressing issues of the international trade agenda.


Regulation of Subsidies and State Aids in WTO and EC Law

Conflicts in International Trade Law

Author: Gustavo E. Luengo Hernández de Madrid

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 586

View: 443

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Regulating subsidies in international trade is crucial to the efficient and equitable allocation of resources and ultimately to global welfare. Much of the serious instability that persists in today's interdependent world may be traced to government interventions that dilute or defy such regulation. In this in-depth analysis of subsidies and State aids, Gustavo Luengo details the regulatory elements that reveal how governments undertake the granting of support to their national industries. Although in theory such support is aimed at two overriding economic objectives - the elimination of harmful distortions, and the correction of market failures - he shows that in practice it is political contexts that determine the principles and objectives of the regulation of subsidies. The analysis focuses on two mature regulatory systems, those of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the European Communities (EC). The author describes both legal frameworks, and then proceeds to examine the differences and conflicts between the two systems, along with their reasons, consequences, and possible solutions. Significant aspects of the regulation of subsidies that emerge from the analysis include the following: the role of 'countervailing measures' the EC notion of 'State aid' as developed by the European Commission and the European Court of Justice procedures for controlling subsidies under both systems and the consequences of granting subsidies in violation of applicable rulesthe elements of 'financial contribution' and 'benefit' under the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (ASCM) actionable and non-actionable subsidies agricultural subsidies in both systemsthe role of WTO dispute settlement procedures Both for its clear and comprehensive overview of the regulation of subsidies and State aids and for its insightful recommendations, this book will be welcomed as a major contribution to the field of international economic law. Practitioners, policymakers, officials, and academics will all find it enormously valuable for its analytic depth and its direct applicability to the need to develop fair and enforceable regulation of subsidies and State aids.

Import Safety

Regulatory Governance in the Global Economy

Author: Cary Coglianese,Adam M. Finkel,David Zaring

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 081220591X

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 7074

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On World Food Day in October 2008, former president Bill Clinton finally accepted decade-old criticism directed at his administration's pursuit of free-trade deals with little regard for food safety, child labor, or workers' rights. "We all blew it, including me when I was president. We blew it. We were wrong to believe that food was like some other product in international trade." Clinton's public admission came at a time when consumers in the United States were hearing unsettling stories about contaminated food, toys, and medical products from China, and the first real calls were being made for more regulation of imported products. Import Safety comes at a moment when public interest is engaged with the subject and the government is receptive to the idea of consumer protections that were not instituted when many of the Clinton era's free-trade pacts were drafted. Written by leading scholars and analysts, the chapters in Import Safety provide background and policy guidance on improving consumer safety in imported food, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and toys and other products aimed at children. Together, they consider whether policymakers should approach import safety issues through better funding of traditional interventions—such as regulatory oversight and product liability—or whether this problem poses a different kind of governance challenge, requiring wholly new methods.

Constitutionalism, Multilevel Trade Governance and Social Regulation

Author: Christian Joerges,Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847312861

Category: Law

Page: 566

View: 7408

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This is a book about the ever more complex legal networks of transnational economic governance structures and their legitimacy problems. It takes up the challenge of the editors' earlier pioneering works which have called for more cross-sectoral and interdisciplinary analyses by scholars of international law, European and international economic law, private international law, international relations theory and social philosophy to examine the interdependences of multilevel governance in transnational economic, social, environmental and legal relations. Two complementary strands of theorising are expounded. One argues that globalisation and the universal recognition of human rights are transforming the intergovernmental "society of states" into a cosmopolitan community of citizens which requires more effective constitutional safeguards for protecting human rights and consumer welfare in the national and international governance and legal regulation of international trade. The second emphasises the dependence of the functioning of international markets and liberal trade on governance arrangements which respond credibly to safety and environmental concerns of consumers, traders, political and non-governmental actors. Enquiries into the generation of international standards and empirical analyses of legalization and judizialisation practices form part of this agenda. The perspectives and conclusions of the more than 20 contributors from Europe and North-America cannot be uniform. But they converge in their search for a constitutional architecture which limits, empowers and legitimises multilevel trade governance, as well as in their common premise that respect for human rights, private and democratic self-government and social justice require more transparent, participatory and deliberative forms of transnational "cosmopolitan democracy".