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This anthology brings together material on two major related topics: the military profession, and morality and war. The revised and updated edition retains those sections that made the original version indispensable in the classroom, while incorporating new selections on topics of special concern for the 1980s and beyond. In particular, Colonel Wakin has included essays focusing on the relevance of nuclear deterrence and "just war" theory in the nuclear age. More than a third of the chapters are new.The articles in the first section stress the ethical dimensions of the military profession, considering topics such as the conflict between military values and societal norms, the relation of the military to the state, and the concepts of loyalty, honor, and integrity. New chapters include an essay by Vice Admiral James B. Stockdale suggesting how moral philosophy can serve the profession, contemporary commentaries on the profession by Jacques Barzun and Max Lerner, and new thoughts on ethics and leadership by Colonel Wakin.The essays in Part 2 confront the agonizing moral issues associated with warfare, especially modern warfare. In conjunction with discussions of the laws of war and war crimes, new chapters highlight the continuing debate on nuclear issues. Included are excerpts from the U.S. Catholic Bishops' pastoral letter, "The Challenge of Peace: God's Promise and Our Response''; a defense of pacifism by Stanley Hauerwas; arguments about the use of nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence by Michael Walzer, Michael Novak, and Charles Krauthammer; and some moral reflections on the Strategic Defense Initiative ("Star Wars'') by Kenneth Kemp.
Brigadier General Malham M. Wakin, head of the philosophy department at the U.S. Air Force Academy for over thirty years, is one of the most esteemed military ethicists in the United States. This collection of essays the first to be published together in a single volume will be essential reading for anyone interested in the field of applied and theoretical ethics. Covering such diverse issues as war and morality, legal ethics, medical ethics, business ethics, conflict mediation, pacifism, just war theory, religion and war, and nuclear deterrance, Integrity First includes work that not only treats issues of longstanding historical significance, but also has relevance to any serious discussion of modern justice. This book represents an erudite and influential mind, and will be of special interest to students and academics both here and abroad."
Author: Dr James Turner Johnson,Dr Eric D Patterson
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Category: Technology & Engineering
This Companion provides scholars and graduates, serving and retired military professionals, members of the diplomatic and policy communities concerned with security affairs, and legal professionals who deal with military law and with international law on armed conflicts, with a comprehensive and authoritative state-of-the-art review of current research in the area of military ethics. Topics in this volume reflect both perennial and pressing contemporary issues in the ethics of the use of military force and are written by established professionals and respected commentators.
The Cardinal Virtues, Military Ethics, and American Society
Author: James H. Toner
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
James Toner argues that the cardinal virtues are and must be the core values of the military. By embracing these values, the profession of arms serves as a moral compass in an increasingly confusing age. Building upon a bold introduction, which includes what many will regard as a surprising view of military ethics, Toner examines the four cardinal virtues -- wisdom, courage, temperance, and justice -- and places each in the context of a compelling case study from recent U.S. military history. He discusses the Flinn Case, the Lavelle Affair, a B-52 crash in Washington State, and the courageous actions of Hugh Thompson after My Lai. Morals Under the Gun connects ethics and moral theology with the armed services, demonstrating that the task of preserving virtue, both personal and professional, is a noble, if imperfectible, task.
Many assume that in international politics, and especially in war, "anything goes." Sherman famously declared war "is all hell." The implication behind the maxim is that in war there is no order, only chaos; no mercy, only cruelty; no restraint, only suffering. Ward Thomas finds that this "anything goes" view is demonstrably wrong. It neither reflects how most people talk about the use of force in international relations nor describes the way national leaders actually use military force. Events such as those in Europe during World War II, in the Persian Gulf War, and in Kosovo cannot be understood, he argues, until we realize that state behavior, even during wartime, is shaped by common understandings about what is ethically acceptable and unacceptable. Thomas makes extensive use of two cases—the assassination of foreign leaders and the aerial bombardment of civilians—to trace the relative influence of norms and interests. His insistence on interconnections between ethical principle and material power leads to a revised understanding of the role of normative factors in foreign policy and the ways in which power and interest shape the international system.
Scratch beneath the surface of today’s culture and you’ll find we’re not so different from ancient Israel. True, our sophistication, mobility, and technology eclipse anything the Israelites could have imagined. Our worship is far different, to say nothing of our language and customs. Yet if the prophets Hosea, Amos, and Micah were to visit us today, we might be shocked to see how little their messages would differ from the ones they delivered 2,800 years ago. For human hearts are still the same--and so is God. Injustice, oppression, and political corruption anger him as much as ever. Apostasy still grieves him. His judgment of sin remains as fierce as his love is strong. And the hope God extends to those who turn toward him is as brilliant now as at any time in history. Revealing the links between Israel eight centuries B.C. and our own times, Gary V. Smith shows how the prophetic writings of Hosea, Amos, and Micah speak to us today with relevance and conviction.
When is the use of military force by a nation morally justified? Why has the long accepted moral requirement to protect civilians from intentional attack eroded in recent years? How can the tendency toward unrestrained warfare between parties with major cultural differences be controlled? In this thought-provoking book, James Turner Johnson refocuses the moral analysis of war on the real problems of today’s armed conflicts. Moral debates about nuclear war and annihilation fail to address the problems of actual contemporary uses of military force, Johnson argues.
I have often wondered if the opposition to women's choosing to abort a pregnancy masks a fear of women choosing to have and raise children on their own. When a woman separatesmotherhood from marriage, she claims a freedom in the realm of intimate rela tionships that may be as fundamental as Freedom of Conscience or Freedom of Association. Yet, we do not usually think about women's decisions concerning motherhood in these terms. In a pair of remarkable studies begun in the 1980s, Ruth Linn-pregnant at the time, and married to a medical officer in the Israeli army-took the study of moral psychology into two highly controversial arenas of moral action: Israeli soldiers who refused to serve in Lebanon and single women who refused to remain childless. While conscientious objection to war has long been recognized as an act ofmoral resistance and courage,women who question societal norms and values linking motherhood with marriage, are typically dismissed as bad women. Rather than approaching these questions in the abstract, Linn chose to inter view women who made the decision to have and raise children on their own. What she found was that in the course of making this decision, women came to see themselves as moral resisters. In freeing their childbearing capability from men's control,they were also freeing their capacity to love. The very title of this book, Mature Unwed Mothers, calls us to think about what we mean by maturity on the part of mothers.
Ever since Eve tempted Adam with her apple, women have been regarded as a corrupting and destructive force. The very idea that women can be used as interrogation tools, as evidenced in the infamous Abu Ghraib torture photos, plays on age-old fears of women as sexually threatening weapons, and therefore the literal explosion of women onto the war scene should come as no surprise. From the female soldiers involved in Abu Ghraib to Palestinian women suicide bombers, women and their bodies have become powerful weapons in the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. In Women as Weapons of War, Kelly Oliver reveals how the media and the administration frequently use metaphors of weaponry to describe women and female sexuality and forge a deliberate link between notions of vulnerability and images of violence. Focusing specifically on the U.S. campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq, Oliver analyzes contemporary discourse surrounding women, sex, and gender and the use of women to justify America's decision to go to war. For example, the administration's call to liberate "women of cover," suggesting a woman's right to bare arms is a sign of freedom and progress. Oliver also considers what forms of cultural meaning, or lack of meaning, could cause both the guiltlessness demonstrated by female soldiers at Abu Ghraib and the profound commitment to death made by suicide bombers. She examines the pleasure taken in violence and the passion for death exhibited by these women and what kind of contexts created them. In conclusion, Oliver diagnoses our cultural fascination with sex, violence, and death and its relationship with live news coverage and embedded reporting, which naturalizes horrific events and stymies critical reflection. This process, she argues, further compromises the borders between fantasy and reality, fueling a kind of paranoid patriotism that results in extreme forms of violence.
Drawn from the "Alice McDermott Memorial Lectures in Applied Ethics" held at the United States Air Force Academy, these 20 essays contribute to our understanding of ethics and leadership. Contributions come from a distinguished and diverse group of individuals including, Allan Bloom, Reverend Edward A. Malloy, John T. Noonan, Jr., James F. Childress, Christina Hoff Sommers, General Ronald R. Fogelman, and William J. Bennett. The range of topics include moral certainty and sensibility, professional and personal integrity, emergency ethics and the responsibility of war criminals, the just war and public policy, unethical adversaries and military obligation, and liberal education and character.
Explores the moral dimensions of the current global role of the U.S. military. For the first time in history, the capabilities of the U.S. military far outstrip those of any potential rival, either singly or collectively, and this reality raises fundamental questions about its role, nature, and conduct. The Moral Warrior explores a wide range of ethical issues regarding the nature and purpose of voluntary military service, the moral meaning of the unique military power of the United States in the contemporary world, and the moral challenges posed by the “war” on terrorism. “Cook’s commanding knowledge of the U.S. military, and his extensive reflection on the moral aspects of the military profession and strategy, make this book both timely and well worth the read … This is … a sobering and alarming sketch of recent U.S. international policy. Let us hope that the U.S. leaders find the imagination and humility necessary to reverse course in the direction recommended by Cook.” — Political Theology “The author is uncommonly familiar with and sensitive to military practice; the result is an intelligent volume, which examines timely issues from an unfamiliar perspective. Not merely of value to a military audience, this clear and accessible book will provide many valuable insights to all readers interested in the morality of war in the contemporary context.” — Religious Studies Review “…so densely packed with issues and analysis that it could easily sustain a semester or two of intense study in military ethics by itself … a must-read for anyone struggling to disentangle the many troubling, interconnected questions that worry all those who hope to see the United States retain its global supremacy without undermining its moral foundations. Cook … is a master of the rare art of clarifying complex problems without minimizing their depth and significance or losing sight of their vital real-life implications.” — Parameters “The Moral Warrior is a thoughtful, subtle, and penetrating study of the ethical challenges that military leaders need to meet as they respond to demanding new missions from Kosovo to Iraq. Martin L. Cook is a fine teacher: clear, undogmatic, and compassionate. I hope his views find a wide audience.” — Michael Ignatieff, Carr Professor of Human Rights Policy at the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University “The book reflects the author’s unique personal and academic background: trained in the study of ethics, he chose to teach at one of the nation’s war colleges, where he became deeply familiar with contemporary military issues in a way unavailable to most. This is throughout a highly intelligent, engaging, and accessible book. It adds the important perspective of what it means in moral terms to be a soldier and sets a new standard for what needs to be included in thinking seriously about the United States’ use of military force.” — James Turner Johnson, author of Morality and Contemporary Warfare “Martin Cook reflects on the difficult moral choices facing American military and policy planners as they employ the latest technologies to fight a new global war. Cook brings to that reflection not only expertise in philosophy, law, and history, but also a deep appreciation of ground-level, operational detail. He has produced an indispensable resource.” — Joel H. Rosenthal, President of the Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs