Warriors and Politicians

US Civil-Military Relations under Stress

Author: Charles A. Stevenson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113598848X

Category: History

Page: 256

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With historical case studies ranging from the Revolutionary War to the war in Iraq, this new book shows how and why the US military is caught between two civilian masters – the President and Congress – in responding to the challenges of warfighting, rearmament, and transformation. Charles Stevenson skilfully shows how, although the United States has never faced the danger of a military coup, the relations between civilian leaders and the military have not always been easy. Presidents have contended with military leaders who were reluctant to carry out their orders. Generals and Admirals have appealed to Congress for sympathy and support. Congressional leaders have tried to impose their own visions and strategies on the US armed forces. This triangular struggle has recurred time and again, in wartime and in efforts to reshape the military for future wars. Illustrating this dual system of civilian military control in a series of case studies, this new volume starts from the way the Continental Congress ran the Revolutionary War by committee and concludes with the George W. Bush and Donald Rumsfeld efforts to transform the US military into a modern terrorist-fighting force. This detailed coverage shows how warriors and politicians interacted at key points in US history. This book will be of great interest to all students of the US Military, government of the United States and of strategic and military studies in general.

War Termination as a Civil-Military Bargain

Soldiers, Statesmen, and the Politics of Protracted Armed Conflict

Author: Shawn T. Cochran

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137527978

Category: Political Science

Page: 220

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War termination reflects a civil-military bargain and affects relevant decisions made by political leaders. For the leader embroiled in protracted war, this risk dictates whether he or she will commit more resources to the fight or else cut the state's losses and get out.

Transforming Warriors

The Ritual Organization of Military Force

Author: Peter Haldén,Peter Jackson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317244850

Category: History

Page: 252

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This volume offers an interdisciplinary study of how different cultures have sought to transform individuals into warriors. War changes people, however a less explored question is how different societies want people to change as they are turned into warriors. When societies go to war they recognize that a boundary is being crossed. The participants are expected to do things that are otherwise prohibited, or at least governed by different rules. This edited volume analyses how different cultures have conceptualized the transformations of an individual passing from a peacetime to a wartime existence to become an active warrior. Despite their differences, all societies grapple with the same question: how much of the individual’s peace-self should be and can be retained in the state of war? The book explores cases such as the Nordic berserkers, the Japanese samurai, and European knights, as well as modern soldiers in Germany, Liberia, and Sweden. It shows that archaic and modern societies are more similar than we usually think: both kinds of societies use myths, symbols, and rituals to create warriors. Thus, this volume seeks to redefine theories of modernization and secularization. It shows that military organizations need to take myths, symbols, and rituals seriously in order to create effective units. This book will be of much interest to students of military studies, war studies, sociology, religion, and international relations in general.

Corporate Warriors

The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry, Updated Edition

Author: P. W. Singer

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801459603

Category: Political Science

Page: 360

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Some have claimed that "War is too important to be left to the generals," but P. W. Singer asks "What about the business executives?" Breaking out of the guns-for-hire mold of traditional mercenaries, corporations now sell skills and services that until recently only state militaries possessed. Their products range from trained commando teams to strategic advice from generals. This new "Privatized Military Industry" encompasses hundreds of companies, thousands of employees, and billions of dollars in revenue. Whether as proxies or suppliers, such firms have participated in wars in Africa, Asia, the Balkans, and Latin America. More recently, they have become a key element in U.S. military operations. Private corporations working for profit now sway the course of national and international conflict, but the consequences have been little explored. In Corporate Warriors, Singer provides the first account of the military services industry and its broader implications. Corporate Warriors includes a description of how the business works, as well as portraits of each of the basic types of companies: military providers that offer troops for tactical operations; military consultants that supply expert advice and training; and military support companies that sell logistics, intelligence, and engineering. This updated edition of Singer's already classic account of the military services industry and its broader implications describes the continuing importance of that industry in the Iraq War. This conflict has amply borne out Singer's argument that the privatization of warfare allows startling new capabilities and efficiencies in the ways that war is carried out. At the same time, however, Singer finds that the introduction of the profit motive onto the battlefield raises troubling questions-for democracy, for ethics, for management, for human rights, and for national security.


Der Aufstieg der mächtigsten Privatarmee der Welt

Author: Jeremy Scahill

Publisher: Antje Kunstmann

ISBN: 3888978548

Category: History

Page: 351

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Kaum jemand hatte von der Firma Blackwater gehört, als am 16. September 2007 im Irak 17 Zivilisten erschossen wurden – von einem Söldnertrupp. Schnell stellte sich heraus, dass sie zu einer Art Privatarmee gehörten, die im Irak und anderswo für die USA Krieg führt, unbemerkt von der Öffentlichkeit und immun gegen Strafverfolgung. Blackwater: die mächtigste militärische Dienst­leis­tungsfirma der Welt. Ihr Gründer Erik Prince, Multimillionär und christlicher Fundamentalist, hat beste Kontakte zur Regierung. Und erkennt nach dem 11. September 2001, wie viel Geld sich mit dem »Outsourcing« militärischer Leistungen verdienen lässt: Bushs »Krieg gegen den Terror« ist die Steilvorlage für den kometenhaften Aufstieg der Firma. Blackwaters Elitesoldaten schützen US-Politiker und Geschäftsleute im Irak – gegen ein Gehalt, von dem GIs nur träumen können. Blackwater kann bei Bedarf Truppen und eine Flugzeugflotte zur Verfügung stellen, groß genug, Regierungen zu stürzen. Blackwaters Söldner bewachen Öl-Pipelines, seine »Sicherheitskräfte« patrouillierten nach Katrina in den Straßen von New Orleans. Doch erst jetzt fällt dem US-Kongress auf, dass die martialischen Rambos keinerlei parlamentarischer Kontrolle, keiner Gerichtsbarkeit unterliegen. Mit seiner glänzend recherchierten Geschichte der Firma Blackwater zeigt Jeremy Scahill überzeugend auf, welche Gefahren der Demokratie drohen, wenn die Regierung ihr Gewaltmonopol privatisiert.

Educating America's Military

Author: Joan Johnson-Freese

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113615860X

Category: Education

Page: 150

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This book offers a detailed examination of the professional military education system in the United States, from a critical, insider's perspective. The mission of America’s war colleges is to educate senior military officers in both the ways of war and the defence of peace. But are these colleges doing the best job possible in carrying out that important mission? Military education faces many demands, including a lack of preparation by the students, uneven quality of the faculty, and confusion over the curriculum. Many officers attend resident programs at the war colleges programs against the career advice of their leadership, despite the fact that they are virtually guaranteed graduation after less than a year of study, while others do their best to avoid it entirely. As the professional military education system has come under increasing scrutiny and criticism, some have even called for closing the war colleges. That answer, however, does not serve the United States well, especially in a complex, globalized environment, where military leaders need the best specialized education to prepare them for their future challenges. This volume examines the system that created and supports the perpetuation of this system, and why it is imperative that it be fixed. Written by a faculty member at a military college with twenty years' experience of the PME system, this book will of much interest to students of the US Military, US politics and military education in general.

Wives and Warriors

Women and the Military in the United States and Canada

Author: Laurie Lee Weinstein,Christie C. White

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780897895262

Category: History

Page: 252

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A fascinating study of women who serve the military as wives or as soldiers, sailors, and flyers, with emphasis on current issues, written by a wide range of scholars and military professionals.

Waging War Without Warriors?

The Changing Culture of Military Conflict

Author: Christopher Coker

Publisher: Lynne Rienner Publishers

ISBN: 9781588261304

Category: Political Science

Page: 223

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In this text, Christopher Coker offers both a history of martial cultures and an analysis of how these are now changing. He locates the origins of the Western way of war in ancient Greece: for example, in the heroic ideals of Homer's Iliad.

Private Military and Security Contractors

Controlling the Corporate Warrior

Author: Jr. Schaub, Gary,Ryan Kelty

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1442260238

Category: Political Science

Page: 440

View: 7449

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A multinational team of scholars and experts address the issue of controlling the use of privatized forces by states. They address the role of contract employees, their acceptance by military personnel, and possible tensions between them.

Clio's Warriors

Canadian Historians and the Writing of the World Wars

Author: Tim Cook

Publisher: UBC Press

ISBN: 0774841257

Category: History

Page: 352

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Clio's Warriors examines how the Canadian world war experience has been constructed and reconstructed over time. Tim Cook elucidates the role of historians in codifying the sacrifice and struggle of a generation as he discusses historical memory and writing, the creation of archives, and the war of reputations that followed each of the world wars on the battlefield. Only recently have military historians pushed the discipline to explore the impact of war on society. In analyzing where the practice of academic military history has come from and where it needs to go, Clio's Warriors plays a vital role in the ongoing challenge of writing critical history.

Warriors of God

Inside Hezbollah's Thirty-Year Struggle Against Israel

Author: Nicholas Blanford

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 0679605169

Category: History

Page: 544

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Hezbollah is the most powerful Islamist group operating in the Middle East today, and no other Western journalist has penetrated as deeply inside this secretive organization as Nicholas Blanford. Now Blanford has written the first comprehensive inside account of Hezbollah and its enduring struggle against Israel. Based on more than a decade and a half of reporting in Lebanon and conversations with Hezbollah’s determined fighters, Blanford reveals their ideology, motivations, and training, as well as new information on military tactics, weapons, and sophisticated electronic warfare and communications systems. Using exclusive sources and his own dogged investigative skills, Blanford traces Hezbollah’s extraordinary evolution—from a zealous group of raw fighters motivated by Iran’s 1979 Islamic revolution into the most formidable non-state military organization in the world, whose charismatic leader vows to hasten Israel’s destruction. With dramatic eyewitness accounts, including Blanford’s own experiences of the battles, massacres, triumphs, and tragedies that have marked the conflict, the story follows the increasingly successful campaign of resistance that led to Israel’s historic withdrawal from Lebanon in 2000. Warriors of God shows how Hezbollah won hearts and minds with exhaustive social welfare programs and sophisticated propaganda skills. Blanford traces the group’s secret military build-up since 2000 and reveals the stunning scope of its underground network of tunnels and bunkers, becoming the only journalist to independently discover and explore them. With the Middle East fearful of another, even more destructive war between Lebanon and Israel, Blanford tenaciously pursues Hezbollah’s post-2006 battle plans in the Lebanese mountains, earning him newspaper scoops as well as a terrifying interrogation and a night in jail. Featuring sixteen years of probing interviews with Hezbollah’s leaders and fighters, Warriors of God is essential to understanding a key player in a region rocked by change and uncertainty. From the Hardcover edition.

Warrior Rule in Japan

Author: Marius Jansen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521484046

Category: History

Page: 280

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Japan was ruled by warriors for the better part of a millennium. From the twelfth to the nineteenth century its political history was dominated by the struggle of competing leagues of fighting men. This volume, comprised of chapters taken from Volumes 3 and 4 of The Cambridge History of Japan, traces the institutional development of warrior rule and dominance. Although samurai influence waned with the development of constitutional government, warrior values remained central to the ethical code of modern Japan.

Awakening Warrior

Revolution in the Ethics of Warfare

Author: Timothy L. Challans

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 0791479919

Category: History

Page: 243

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Explores moral progress in the American military.

Thutmose III

The Military Biography of Egypt's Greatest Warrior King

Author: Richard A. Gabriel

Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.

ISBN: 1597973734

Category: History

Page: 252

View: 1511

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In the course of his thirty-two-year reign over ancient Egypt, Thutmose III fought an impressive seventeen campaigns. He fought more battles over a longer period of time and experienced more victories than Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar did. Despite Thutmose III's surprisingly illustrious record, his name does not command the same immediate recognition as these highly visible military leaders. In Thutmose III, Richard Gabriel deftly brings to life the character and ability of ancient Egypt's warrior king and sheds light on Thutmose's key contributions to Egyptian history. Considered the father of the Egyptian navy, Thutmose created the first combat navy in the ancient world and built an enormous shipyard near Memphis to construct troop, horse, and supply transports to support his campaigns in Syria and Iraq. He also reformed the army, establishing a reliable conscript base, creating a professional officer corps, equipping it with modern weapons, and integrating chariotry's combat arm into new tactical doctrines. Politically, he introduced strategic principles of national security that guided Egyptian diplomatic, commercial, and military policies for half a millennium and created the Egyptian empire. Through these crowning achievements, Thutmose set into motion events that shaped and influenced the Levant and Egypt for the next four hundred years. His reign can be regarded as a watershed in the military and imperial history of the entire eastern Mediterranean.

Expendable Warriors

The Battle of Khe Sanh and the Vietnam War

Author: Bruce B. G. Clarke

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780275994808

Category: History

Page: 167

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The Battle and Siege of Khe Sanh were instrumental in the American loss in Vietnam, showing by 1968 the enormous and insurmountable difficulties to American victory.

Uneasy Warriors

Gender, Memory, and Popular Culture in the Japanese Army

Author: Sabine Frühstück

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520247957

Category: History

Page: 270

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"This is one of the best—most surprising, insightful, provocative—books I've read on the complex interplay of memory, militarism and masculinity. Japan specialists will be sure to find it thought-provoking. But it should also be 'must reading' for all students of masculinity, femininity, militarization, and soldiering. This is comparative feminist ethnography at its smartest."—Cynthia Enloe, author of The Curious Feminist: Searching for Women in a New Age of Empire "Uneasy Warriors presents a rare and intimate view into the psychological and social workings of the Self-Defense Forces. As the US and Japanese governments gear up to change the Japanese anti-war constitution, this book is even more important for understanding what the consequences will be."—Catherine Lutz, author of Homefront: A Military City and the American 20th Century "Sabine Frühstück expertly describes the ambiguous status of the Japanese Self Defense Forces. The book reveals insights gained from several years of sustained research, including a stint "in uniform" at an army base near Mt. Fuji. Frühstück's observations about the SDF's public relations emphasis on "cute" popular cultural media are timely and trenchant, as are her analyses of the militarization of masculinity and femininity."—Jennifer Robertson, author of Takarazuka: Sexual Politics and Popular Culture in Modern Japan

Studies in the Book of Genesis

Literature, Redaction and History

Author: André Wénin

Publisher: Peeters Publishers

ISBN: 9789042909342

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 651

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Depuis plus de 20 ans, le Pentateuque en general et la Genese en particulier font l'objet d'un vaste debat parmi les specialistes de la Bible. Les traditions qui constituent ce livre ont certainement une longue histoire que les historiens s'efforcent de retrouver. Aujourd'hui, cependant, les exegetes etudient principalement le processus de redaction entame sans doute lors de l'Exil a Babylone et qui a conduit au livre tel que nous le connaissons. D'autres s'attachent a la forme finale de la Genese pour l'etudier comme un des chefs d'oeuvre de la litterature israelite ancienne. Les articles presentes dans ce livre reprennent ces questions en vue de nourrir le debat et de faire progresser notre connaissance du premier livre de la Bible hebraique. Le present ouvrage constitue les Actes des travaux du 48e Colloquium biblicum Lovaniense qui s'est tenu en juillet 1999 a Louvain et dont le theme etait le livre de la Genese.