Warriors and Politicians

US Civil-Military Relations under Stress

Author: Charles A. Stevenson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113598848X

Category: History

Page: 254

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With historical case studies ranging from the Revolutionary War to the war in Iraq, this new book shows how and why the US military is caught between two civilian masters – the President and Congress – in responding to the challenges of warfighting, rearmament, and transformation. Charles Stevenson skilfully shows how, although the United States has never faced the danger of a military coup, the relations between civilian leaders and the military have not always been easy. Presidents have contended with military leaders who were reluctant to carry out their orders. Generals and Admirals have appealed to Congress for sympathy and support. Congressional leaders have tried to impose their own visions and strategies on the US armed forces. This triangular struggle has recurred time and again, in wartime and in efforts to reshape the military for future wars. Illustrating this dual system of civilian military control in a series of case studies, this new volume starts from the way the Continental Congress ran the Revolutionary War by committee and concludes with the George W. Bush and Donald Rumsfeld efforts to transform the US military into a modern terrorist-fighting force. This detailed coverage shows how warriors and politicians interacted at key points in US history. This book will be of great interest to all students of the US Military, government of the United States and of strategic and military studies in general.

War Termination as a Civil-Military Bargain

Soldiers, Statesmen, and the Politics of Protracted Armed Conflict

Author: Shawn T. Cochran

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137527978

Category: Political Science

Page: 220

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War termination reflects a civil-military bargain and affects relevant decisions made by political leaders. For the leader embroiled in protracted war, this risk dictates whether he or she will commit more resources to the fight or else cut the state's losses and get out.

Educating America's Military

Author: Joan Johnson-Freese

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113615860X

Category: Education

Page: 150

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This book offers a detailed examination of the professional military education system in the United States, from a critical, insider's perspective. The mission of America’s war colleges is to educate senior military officers in both the ways of war and the defence of peace. But are these colleges doing the best job possible in carrying out that important mission? Military education faces many demands, including a lack of preparation by the students, uneven quality of the faculty, and confusion over the curriculum. Many officers attend resident programs at the war colleges programs against the career advice of their leadership, despite the fact that they are virtually guaranteed graduation after less than a year of study, while others do their best to avoid it entirely. As the professional military education system has come under increasing scrutiny and criticism, some have even called for closing the war colleges. That answer, however, does not serve the United States well, especially in a complex, globalized environment, where military leaders need the best specialized education to prepare them for their future challenges. This volume examines the system that created and supports the perpetuation of this system, and why it is imperative that it be fixed. Written by a faculty member at a military college with twenty years' experience of the PME system, this book will of much interest to students of the US Military, US politics and military education in general.

Handbook of War Studies II

Author: Manus I. Midlarsky

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472067244

Category: Political Science

Page: 564

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Essays reflecting the most recent theoretically and empirically-oriented research on international warfare

Corporate Warriors

The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry

Author: Peter Warren Singer

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801489150

Category: Law

Page: 330

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Appendix 1: PMFs on the web, a list of websites of privatized military firms. Appendix 2: sample of a PMF contract.

Guarding the Guardians

Civil-Military Relations and Democratic Governance in Africa

Author: Dr Mathurin C Houngnikpo

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409499839

Category: Political Science

Page: 228

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The relationship between civil society and the armed forces is an essential part of any polity, democratic or otherwise, because a military force is after all a universal feature of social systems. Despite significant progress moving towards democracy among some African countries in the past decade, all too many African militaries have yet to accept core democratic principles regulating civilian authority over the military. This book explores the theory of civil-military relations and moves on to review the intrusion of the armed forces in African politics by looking first into the organization and role of the army in pre-colonial and colonial eras, before examining contemporary armies and their impact on society. Furthermore it revisits the various explanations of military takeovers in Africa and disentangles the notion of the military as the modernizing force. Whether as a revolutionary force, as a stabilizing force, or as a modernizing force, the military has often been perceived as the only organized and disciplined group with the necessary skills to uplift newly independent nations. The performance of Africa's military governments since independence, however, has soundly disproven this thesis. As such, this study conveys the necessity of new civil-military relations in Africa and calls not just for civilian control of the military but rather a democratic oversight of the security forces in Africa.

Transforming Warriors

The Ritual Organization of Military Force

Author: Peter Haldén,Peter Jackson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317244850

Category: History

Page: 252

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This volume offers an interdisciplinary study of how different cultures have sought to transform individuals into warriors. War changes people, however a less explored question is how different societies want people to change as they are turned into warriors. When societies go to war they recognize that a boundary is being crossed. The participants are expected to do things that are otherwise prohibited, or at least governed by different rules. This edited volume analyses how different cultures have conceptualized the transformations of an individual passing from a peacetime to a wartime existence to become an active warrior. Despite their differences, all societies grapple with the same question: how much of the individual’s peace-self should be and can be retained in the state of war? The book explores cases such as the Nordic berserkers, the Japanese samurai, and European knights, as well as modern soldiers in Germany, Liberia, and Sweden. It shows that archaic and modern societies are more similar than we usually think: both kinds of societies use myths, symbols, and rituals to create warriors. Thus, this volume seeks to redefine theories of modernization and secularization. It shows that military organizations need to take myths, symbols, and rituals seriously in order to create effective units. This book will be of much interest to students of military studies, war studies, sociology, religion, and international relations in general.

Grassroots Warriors

Activist Mothering, Community Work, and the War on Poverty

Author: Nancy A. Naples

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415910255

Category: Political Science

Page: 285

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First published in 1998. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Waging War Without Warriors?

The Changing Culture of Military Conflict

Author: Christopher Coker

Publisher: Lynne Rienner Publishers

ISBN: 9781588261304

Category: Political Science

Page: 223

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In this text, Christopher Coker offers both a history of martial cultures and an analysis of how these are now changing. He locates the origins of the Western way of war in ancient Greece: for example, in the heroic ideals of Homer's Iliad.

Clio's Warriors

Canadian Historians and the Writing of the World Wars

Author: Tim Cook

Publisher: UBC Press

ISBN: 0774841257

Category: History

Page: 352

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Clio's Warriors examines how the Canadian world war experience has been constructed and reconstructed over time. Tim Cook elucidates the role of historians in codifying the sacrifice and struggle of a generation as he discusses historical memory and writing, the creation of archives, and the war of reputations that followed each of the world wars on the battlefield. Only recently have military historians pushed the discipline to explore the impact of war on society. In analyzing where the practice of academic military history has come from and where it needs to go, Clio's Warriors plays a vital role in the ongoing challenge of writing critical history.

Warriors and Scribes

Essays on the History and Politics of Latin America

Author: James Dunkerley

Publisher: Verso

ISBN: 9781859842720

Category: History

Page: 211

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Looks at the history of Latin American politics and government.

Warriors of God

Inside Hezbollah's Thirty-Year Struggle Against Israel

Author: Nicholas Blanford

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 0679605169

Category: History

Page: 544

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Hezbollah is the most powerful Islamist group operating in the Middle East today, and no other Western journalist has penetrated as deeply inside this secretive organization as Nicholas Blanford. Now Blanford has written the first comprehensive inside account of Hezbollah and its enduring struggle against Israel. Based on more than a decade and a half of reporting in Lebanon and conversations with Hezbollah’s determined fighters, Blanford reveals their ideology, motivations, and training, as well as new information on military tactics, weapons, and sophisticated electronic warfare and communications systems. Using exclusive sources and his own dogged investigative skills, Blanford traces Hezbollah’s extraordinary evolution—from a zealous group of raw fighters motivated by Iran’s 1979 Islamic revolution into the most formidable non-state military organization in the world, whose charismatic leader vows to hasten Israel’s destruction. With dramatic eyewitness accounts, including Blanford’s own experiences of the battles, massacres, triumphs, and tragedies that have marked the conflict, the story follows the increasingly successful campaign of resistance that led to Israel’s historic withdrawal from Lebanon in 2000. Warriors of God shows how Hezbollah won hearts and minds with exhaustive social welfare programs and sophisticated propaganda skills. Blanford traces the group’s secret military build-up since 2000 and reveals the stunning scope of its underground network of tunnels and bunkers, becoming the only journalist to independently discover and explore them. With the Middle East fearful of another, even more destructive war between Lebanon and Israel, Blanford tenaciously pursues Hezbollah’s post-2006 battle plans in the Lebanese mountains, earning him newspaper scoops as well as a terrifying interrogation and a night in jail. Featuring sixteen years of probing interviews with Hezbollah’s leaders and fighters, Warriors of God is essential to understanding a key player in a region rocked by change and uncertainty. From the Hardcover edition.

Warrior Rule in Japan

Author: Marius Jansen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521484046

Category: History

Page: 280

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Japan was ruled by warriors for the better part of a millennium. From the twelfth to the nineteenth century its political history was dominated by the struggle of competing leagues of fighting men. This volume, comprised of chapters taken from Volumes 3 and 4 of The Cambridge History of Japan, traces the institutional development of warrior rule and dominance. Although samurai influence waned with the development of constitutional government, warrior values remained central to the ethical code of modern Japan.

Citizen-Soldiers and Manly Warriors

Military Service and Gender in the Civic Republican Tradition

Author: Claire R. Snyder

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

ISBN: 0742573532

Category: Political Science

Page: 192

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What happens in a tradition that links citizenship with soldiering when women become citizens? Citizen Soldiers and Manly Warriors provides an in-depth analysis of the theory and practice of the citizen-soldier in historical context. Using a postmodern feminist lens, Snyder reveals that within the citizen-soldier tradition, citizenship and masculinity are simultaneously constituted through engagement in civic and martial practices.

Wives and Warriors

Women and the Military in the United States and Canada

Author: Laurie Lee Weinstein,Christie C. White

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780897894913

Category: History

Page: 252

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A fascinating study of women who serve the military as wives or as soldiers, sailors, and flyers, with emphasis on current issues, written by a wide range of scholars and military professionals.

The Warrior State

Pakistan in the Contemporary World

Author: T V Paul

Publisher: Random House India

ISBN: 8184006241

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 267

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Seemingly from its birth, Pakistan has been struggling to build a proper democracy and a secure state. Today it ranks 133rd out of 148 countries in global competitiveness. Its economy is as dysfunctional as its political system is corrupt; both rely heavily on international aid for their existence. Taliban forces occupy many key areas of the country and engage in random violence. It possesses over a hundred nuclear weapons that could fall into terrorists’ hands. Why, in an era when countries across the developing world are experiencing impressive economic growth and building democratic institutions, has Pakistan been such a conspicuously weak state? In The Warrior State, noted international relations and South Asia scholar T.V. Paul untangles this fascinating riddle. Paul argues that the “geostrategic curse”—akin to the “resource curse” that plagues oil-rich autocracies—is at the root of Pakistan’s unique inability to progress. Since its founding in 1947, Pakistan has been at the center of major geopolitical struggles: the US-Soviet rivalry, the conflict with India, and most recently the post 9/11 wars. No matter how ineffective the regime is, massive foreign aid keeps pouring in from major powers, their allies and global financial institutions with a stake in the region. The reliability of such aid defuses any pressure on political elites to launch the far-reaching domestic reforms necessary to promote sustained growth, higher standards of living, and more stable democratic institutions. Paul shows that excessive war-making efforts have drained Pakistan’s limited economic resources without making the country safer or more stable. Indeed, despite the regime’s emphasis on security, the country continues to be beset by widespread violence and terrorism. In an age of transnational terrorism and nuclear proliferation, understanding Pakistan’s development, particularly the negative effects of foreign aid and geopolitical centrality, is more important than ever. Painstakingly researched and brilliantly argued, The Warrior State tackles what may be the world’s most dangerous powder keg and uncovers the true causes of Pakistan’s enormously consequential failure.