Warriors and Politicians

US Civil-Military Relations under Stress

Author: Charles A. Stevenson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113598848X

Category: History

Page: 256

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With historical case studies ranging from the Revolutionary War to the war in Iraq, this new book shows how and why the US military is caught between two civilian masters – the President and Congress – in responding to the challenges of warfighting, rearmament, and transformation. Charles Stevenson skilfully shows how, although the United States has never faced the danger of a military coup, the relations between civilian leaders and the military have not always been easy. Presidents have contended with military leaders who were reluctant to carry out their orders. Generals and Admirals have appealed to Congress for sympathy and support. Congressional leaders have tried to impose their own visions and strategies on the US armed forces. This triangular struggle has recurred time and again, in wartime and in efforts to reshape the military for future wars. Illustrating this dual system of civilian military control in a series of case studies, this new volume starts from the way the Continental Congress ran the Revolutionary War by committee and concludes with the George W. Bush and Donald Rumsfeld efforts to transform the US military into a modern terrorist-fighting force. This detailed coverage shows how warriors and politicians interacted at key points in US history. This book will be of great interest to all students of the US Military, government of the United States and of strategic and military studies in general.

Educating America's Military

Author: Joan Johnson-Freese

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113615860X

Category: Education

Page: 150

View: 8182

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This book offers a detailed examination of the professional military education system in the United States, from a critical, insider's perspective. The mission of America’s war colleges is to educate senior military officers in both the ways of war and the defence of peace. But are these colleges doing the best job possible in carrying out that important mission? Military education faces many demands, including a lack of preparation by the students, uneven quality of the faculty, and confusion over the curriculum. Many officers attend resident programs at the war colleges programs against the career advice of their leadership, despite the fact that they are virtually guaranteed graduation after less than a year of study, while others do their best to avoid it entirely. As the professional military education system has come under increasing scrutiny and criticism, some have even called for closing the war colleges. That answer, however, does not serve the United States well, especially in a complex, globalized environment, where military leaders need the best specialized education to prepare them for their future challenges. This volume examines the system that created and supports the perpetuation of this system, and why it is imperative that it be fixed. Written by a faculty member at a military college with twenty years' experience of the PME system, this book will of much interest to students of the US Military, US politics and military education in general.

Qualitative Methods in Military Studies

Research Experiences and Challenges

Author: Helena Carreiras

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415698111

Category: History

Page: 189

View: 8273

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This book examines the methodology of qualitative research in military studies. Since the end of the Cold War, the number of studies on military and society has grown substantially in substance, size and impact. However, only a tiny part of this bibliography deals in depth with the research methods used, especially in relation to qualitative methods. The data that form the basis of the researchers' analyses are often presented as if they were immediately available, rather than as a product of interaction between the researcher and those who participated in the research. Comprising essays by international scholars, the volume discusses the methodological questions raised by the use of qualitative research methodology in military settings. On the one hand, it focuses on the specificity of the military as a social context for research: the authors single out and discuss the particular field effects produced by institutional arrangements, norms and practices of the military. On the other, the authors proceed in an empirical manner: all methodological questions are addressed with regard to concrete situations of field research. This book will be of much interest to students of military studies, research methods, sociology, anthropology, war and conflict studies and security studies in general.

Corporate Warriors

The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry, Updated Edition

Author: P. W. Singer

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801459603

Category: Political Science

Page: 360

View: 2377

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Some have claimed that "War is too important to be left to the generals," but P. W. Singer asks "What about the business executives?" Breaking out of the guns-for-hire mold of traditional mercenaries, corporations now sell skills and services that until recently only state militaries possessed. Their products range from trained commando teams to strategic advice from generals. This new "Privatized Military Industry" encompasses hundreds of companies, thousands of employees, and billions of dollars in revenue. Whether as proxies or suppliers, such firms have participated in wars in Africa, Asia, the Balkans, and Latin America. More recently, they have become a key element in U.S. military operations. Private corporations working for profit now sway the course of national and international conflict, but the consequences have been little explored. In Corporate Warriors, Singer provides the first account of the military services industry and its broader implications. Corporate Warriors includes a description of how the business works, as well as portraits of each of the basic types of companies: military providers that offer troops for tactical operations; military consultants that supply expert advice and training; and military support companies that sell logistics, intelligence, and engineering. This updated edition of Singer's already classic account of the military services industry and its broader implications describes the continuing importance of that industry in the Iraq War. This conflict has amply borne out Singer's argument that the privatization of warfare allows startling new capabilities and efficiencies in the ways that war is carried out. At the same time, however, Singer finds that the introduction of the profit motive onto the battlefield raises troubling questions-for democracy, for ethics, for management, for human rights, and for national security.

Drones and the Future of Air Warfare

The Evolution of Remotely Piloted Aircraft

Author: Michael P. Kreuzer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317285794

Category: History

Page: 248

View: 2426

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This book examines the evolution of airpower and specifically the growth and proliferation of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPAs). While most existing literature examines either the law or ethics of RPAs, and some newer scholarship looks to the battlefield effectiveness (the gains from strikes versus the potential for ‘blowback, etc.), this work investigates it from a broader military perspective. It examines the strategy for employment of RPAs across the spectrum of warfare, the potential deterrent value of RPAs in some circumstances, and the resulting ability of RPAs to fundamentally shift the character of when and how wars are fought. The central aim of this book is to evaluate the role of ‘drones’ in warfare to date, and make basic projections on how states will adopt RPAs and UCAVs in the future. At the core is the goal of answering a broad, underlying research question: How will the RPA innovation impact military strategy and international security? This book will be of much interest to students of airpower, drone warfare, military and strategic studies, security studies and IR.

Arguing with Anthropology

An Introduction to Critical Theories of the Gift

Author: Karen Sykes,Karen Margaret Sykes

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415254434

Category: Social Science

Page: 244

View: 6745

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A guide to key elements in anthropology, this work teaches the ability to think, write and argue critically. Its hypothetical approach takes gift-theory - the science of obligation and reciprocity - as the theme of a virtual enquiry, which explores how the discipline has evolved, how it is applied in practice and how it can be argued.

Gender and the Military

Women in the Armed Forces of Western Democracies

Author: Helena Carreiras

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134176430

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 7451

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This is the first comparative, cross-national study of the participation of women in the armed forces of NATO countries. Along side an analysis of this key topic stands a critique of existing theoretical models and the proposal of a revised analytical framework. Unlike previous works this new study employs mixed-methodological research design combining quantitative and qualitative data - a large N-analysis based on general policies and statistical information concerning every country in the sample with more in-depth case-studies. This volume includes original empirical data regarding the presence of women in the armed forces of NATO countries, proposes an index of ‘gender inclusiveness’ and assesses the factors that affect women’s military roles. The book also presents two new key case studies – Portugal and the Netherlands - based on both documentary sources and in-depth interviews of both men and women officers in the two countries. This book will be of great interest to all students and scholars of strategic studies, gender and women studies and military history.

War Termination as a Civil-Military Bargain

Soldiers, Statesmen, and the Politics of Protracted Armed Conflict

Author: Shawn T. Cochran

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137527978

Category: Political Science

Page: 220

View: 8049

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War termination reflects a civil-military bargain and affects relevant decisions made by political leaders. For the leader embroiled in protracted war, this risk dictates whether he or she will commit more resources to the fight or else cut the state's losses and get out.

Warriors in Peacetime

The Military and Democracy in Latin America, New Directions for US Policy

Author: Gabriel Marcella

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780714645858

Category: Political Science

Page: 163

View: 1574

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What should military warriors do in peacetime? Such was the theme of an international conference at the Inter-American Defense College in 1992 which brought together diplomats, military officials and distinguished academics to discuss the purpose of military institutions in Latin America in the new world order. The most important message of this book is that the order has by no means eliminated the need for armed forces.

Special Operations Forces in the 21st Century

Perspectives from the Social Sciences

Author: Jessica Glicken Turnley,Kobi Michael,Eyal Ben-Ari

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351802674

Category: History

Page: 312

View: 4703

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This book sets out the major social scientific approaches to the study of Special Operations Forces. Despite consistent downsizing, over the past two decades the armed forces of the industrial democracies have seen a huge growth in Special Operations Forces (SOF). Through increasing numbers of personnel and more frequent deployments, SOF units have wielded considerable influence in conflicts around the world, with senior SOF officers having led major strategic operations. This increased presence and unprecedented expansion for SOF is largely a result of the ‘new’ kinds of conflicts that have emerged in the 21st century. At the same time, even with this high profile in the military, policy and media and popular cultural arenas, there is relatively little social scientific research on SOF. This volume aims to fill this gap by providing a series of studies and analyses of SOF across the globe, since the end of World War II. Analysing SOF at the micro, mezzo and macro levels provides broad and diverse insights. Moreover, the volume deals with new issues raised by the use of such forces that include emerging modes of civilian control, innovative organizational forms and the special psychological characteristics necessitated by SOF operatives. It concludes with a discussion of a question which continues to be debated in today’s militaries: what makes SOF ‘special’? Filling a clear gap in the literature, this book will be of much interest to students of strategic studies, civil-military relations, irregular warfare, security studies, and international relations.

Managing Diversity in the Military

The Value of Inclusion in a Culture of Uniformity

Author: Daniel P. McDonald,Kizzy M. Parks

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113661897X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 296

View: 1175

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This edited book examines the management of diversity and inclusion in the military. Owing to the rise of asymmetric warfare, a shift in demographics and labor shortfalls, the US Department of Defense (DoD) has prioritized diversity and inclusion in its workforce management philosophy. In pursuing this objective, it must ensure the attractiveness of a military career by providing an inclusive environment for all personnel (active and reserve military, civilian, and contractors) to reach their potential and maximize their contributions to the organization. Research and practice alike provide substantial evidence of the benefits associated with diversity and inclusion in the workplace. Diversity and inclusion programs are more strategic in focus than equal opportunity programs and strive to capitalize on the strengths of the workforce, while minimizing the weaknesses that inhibit optimal organizational performance. This new book provides vital clarification on these distinct concepts, in addition to offering concrete best practices for the successful management of diversity and inclusion in the workplace. Written by scholars and practitioners, each chapter addresses major areas, raises crucial issues, and comments on future trends concerning diversity and inclusion in the workplace. The book will be of great interest to students of military studies, war and conflict studies, business management/HRM, psychology and politics in general, as well as to military professionals and leaders.

Space Wars

The First Six Hours of World War III, A War Game Scenario

Author: Michael J. Coumatos,William B. Scott,William J. Birnes

Publisher: Forge Books

ISBN: 9781429920674

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 8655

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Michael J. Coumatos is a former U.S. Navy test pilot, ship's captain, and commodore; U.S. Space Command director of wargaming; and a government counterterrorism advisor. William Scott is a retired bureau chief of Aviation Week and Space Technology and a nine-year Air force veteran who served as aircrew on nuclear sampling missions. He is a six-time Royal Aeronautical Society "Journalist of the Year" finalist, and won the Society's 1998 Lockheed Martin Award for the "Best Defense Submission." He also received both the 2006 and 2007 Messier-Dowty awards for "Best Airshow Submission." With the help of New York Times bestselling author William J. Birnes, these renowned experts have joined forces to grippingly depict how the first hours of World War III might play out in the year 2010. Coumatos, Scott, and Birnes take the reader inside U.S. Strategic Command, where top military commanders, space-company executives, and U.S. intelligence experts are conducting a DEADSATS II wargame, exploring how the loss of critical satellites could lead to nuclear war. The players don't know that the war they are gaming has already begun, miles above them in the lifeless, silent cold of space. Jam-packed with the actual systems and secret technologies the United States has or will soon field to protect its space assets, Space Wars describes a near-future nuclear nightmare that terrorists will relish but politicians prefer to ignore. In a quieter, more peaceful time, Space Wars would be an exciting work of fiction. But with the United States now at war, Space Wars is all too real. . At the Publisher's request, this title is being sold without Digital Rights Management Software (DRM) applied.

Starship Troopers

Author: Robert A. Heinlein

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781101500422

Category: Fiction

Page: 352

View: 6046

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In Robert A. Heinlein’s controversial Hugo Award-winning bestseller, a recruit of the future goes through the toughest boot camp in the Universe—and into battle against mankind’s most alarming enemy... Johnnie Rico never really intended to join up—and definitely not the infantry. But now that he’s in the thick of it, trying to get through combat training harder than anything he could have imagined, he knows everyone in his unit is one bad move away from buying the farm in the interstellar war the Terran Federation is waging against the Arachnids. Because everyone in the Mobile Infantry fights. And if the training doesn’t kill you, the Bugs are more than ready to finish the job... “A classic…If you want a great military adventure, this one is for you.”—All SciFi

Corporate Soldiers and International Security

The Rise of Private Military Companies

Author: Christopher Kinsey

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113421409X

Category: History

Page: 208

View: 4237

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This book traces the history of private military companies, with a special focus on UK private forces. Christopher Kinsey examines the mercenary companies that filled the ranks of many European armies right up to the 1850s, the organizations that operated in Africa in the 1960s and early 1970s, the rise of legally established private military companies in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and today’s private and important actors in international security and post-conflict reconstruction. He shows how and why the change from the mercenary organizations of the 1960s and 1970s came about, as the increasing newness of private military companies came to be recognised. It then examines how PMCs have been able to impact upon international security. Finally, Kinsey looks at the type of problems and advantages that can arise for organizations that decide to use private military companies and how they can make an unique contribution to international security. Corporate Soldiers and International Security will be of great interest to all students of international politics, security studies and war studies.

Transforming Warriors

The Ritual Organization of Military Force

Author: Peter Haldén,Peter Jackson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317244850

Category: History

Page: 252

View: 5520

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This volume offers an interdisciplinary study of how different cultures have sought to transform individuals into warriors. War changes people, however a less explored question is how different societies want people to change as they are turned into warriors. When societies go to war they recognize that a boundary is being crossed. The participants are expected to do things that are otherwise prohibited, or at least governed by different rules. This edited volume analyses how different cultures have conceptualized the transformations of an individual passing from a peacetime to a wartime existence to become an active warrior. Despite their differences, all societies grapple with the same question: how much of the individual’s peace-self should be and can be retained in the state of war? The book explores cases such as the Nordic berserkers, the Japanese samurai, and European knights, as well as modern soldiers in Germany, Liberia, and Sweden. It shows that archaic and modern societies are more similar than we usually think: both kinds of societies use myths, symbols, and rituals to create warriors. Thus, this volume seeks to redefine theories of modernization and secularization. It shows that military organizations need to take myths, symbols, and rituals seriously in order to create effective units. This book will be of much interest to students of military studies, war studies, sociology, religion, and international relations in general.

The War of the Worlds

Author: Herbert George Wells

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science fiction

Page: 288

View: 7017

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H.G. Wells's hugely influential book tracks the exploits of a writer who struggles to survive an alien invasion of Victorian England. After seeing the monstrous Martians firsthand, the narrator attempts to evade their destructive mechanized vehicles and must stay on the run to avoid detection. As he meets other desperate humans, he becomes increasingly pessimistic about any chance of survival. The novel stands as a major milestone in science-fiction literature, inspiring legions of subsequent writers and an endless array of hostile-alien scenarios.

Corporate Warriors

The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry, Updated Edition

Author: P. W. Singer

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801459603

Category: Political Science

Page: 360

View: 2129

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Some have claimed that "War is too important to be left to the generals," but P. W. Singer asks "What about the business executives?" Breaking out of the guns-for-hire mold of traditional mercenaries, corporations now sell skills and services that until recently only state militaries possessed. Their products range from trained commando teams to strategic advice from generals. This new "Privatized Military Industry" encompasses hundreds of companies, thousands of employees, and billions of dollars in revenue. Whether as proxies or suppliers, such firms have participated in wars in Africa, Asia, the Balkans, and Latin America. More recently, they have become a key element in U.S. military operations. Private corporations working for profit now sway the course of national and international conflict, but the consequences have been little explored. In Corporate Warriors, Singer provides the first account of the military services industry and its broader implications. Corporate Warriors includes a description of how the business works, as well as portraits of each of the basic types of companies: military providers that offer troops for tactical operations; military consultants that supply expert advice and training; and military support companies that sell logistics, intelligence, and engineering. This updated edition of Singer's already classic account of the military services industry and its broader implications describes the continuing importance of that industry in the Iraq War. This conflict has amply borne out Singer's argument that the privatization of warfare allows startling new capabilities and efficiencies in the ways that war is carried out. At the same time, however, Singer finds that the introduction of the profit motive onto the battlefield raises troubling questions-for democracy, for ethics, for management, for human rights, and for national security.

Private Military and Security Companies

Ethics, Policies and Civil-Military Relations

Author: Andrew Alexandra,Deane-Peter Baker,Marina Caparini

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134081871

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 7917

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Over the past twenty years, Private Military and Security Companies (PMSCs) have become significant elements of national security arrangements, assuming many of the functions that have traditionally been undertaken by state armies. Given the centrality of control over the use of coercive force to the functioning and identity of the modern state, and to international order, these developments clearly are of great practical and conceptual interest. This edited volume provides an interdisciplinary overview of PMSCs: what they are, why they have emerged in their current form, how they operate, their current and likely future military, political, social and economic impact, and the moral and legal constraints that do and should apply to their operation. The book focuses firstly upon normative issues raised by the development of PMSCs, and then upon state regulation and policy towards PMSCs, examining finally the impact of PMSCs on civil-military relations. It takes an innovative approach, bringing theory and empirical research into mutually illuminating contact. Includes contributions from experts in IR, political theory, international and corporate law, and economics, and also breaks important new ground by including philosophical discussions of PMSCs.

Educating America's Military

Author: Joan Johnson-Freese

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113615860X

Category: Education

Page: 150

View: 356

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This book offers a detailed examination of the professional military education system in the United States, from a critical, insider's perspective. The mission of America’s war colleges is to educate senior military officers in both the ways of war and the defence of peace. But are these colleges doing the best job possible in carrying out that important mission? Military education faces many demands, including a lack of preparation by the students, uneven quality of the faculty, and confusion over the curriculum. Many officers attend resident programs at the war colleges programs against the career advice of their leadership, despite the fact that they are virtually guaranteed graduation after less than a year of study, while others do their best to avoid it entirely. As the professional military education system has come under increasing scrutiny and criticism, some have even called for closing the war colleges. That answer, however, does not serve the United States well, especially in a complex, globalized environment, where military leaders need the best specialized education to prepare them for their future challenges. This volume examines the system that created and supports the perpetuation of this system, and why it is imperative that it be fixed. Written by a faculty member at a military college with twenty years' experience of the PME system, this book will of much interest to students of the US Military, US politics and military education in general.

Outsourcing Sovereignty

Why Privatization of Government Functions Threatens Democracy and What We Can Do about It

Author: Paul R. Verkuil

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139466267

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 9423

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This book describes the largely overlooked process of using private government contractors to perform essential or inherent functions in the military and civilian sectors of government. It shows how such practices undermine the capacity effectiveness and morale of government officials and it establishes constitutional and statutory arguments against the practice. It recognizes and accepts the proper role for outsourcing or privatization while safeguarding against its improper use. The argument ultimately turns on the necessity for our democratic system to require the executive branch to perform crucial tasks in-house unless Congress has permitted delegations to private contractors.